Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 30, 2009 - Science - 287 pages
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Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands covers the production, purification, storage, pipeline transport, usage, and safety of biohydrogen. Hydrogen promises to be the most significant fuel source of the future, due to its global availability and the fact that water is its only by-product. Biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-oil, and biohydrogen are produced using technologies for thermochemically and biologically converting biomass. Hydrogen fuel production technologies can make use of either non-renewable sources, or renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biorenewable resources. Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands reviews all of the modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, and fuel cells. The book also discusses issues of biohydrogen economy, policy and environmental impact. Biohydrogen looks set to be the fuel of choice in the future, replacing both fossil fuels and biorenewable liquid fuels.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
111 Global Energy Sources and the Present Energy Situation
2
12 Conventional Fossil Fuel Sources
5
121 Petroleum and Heavy Oil Refining
6
122 Petroleum Products and Fuels
9
123 Coal
10
13 Unconventional Fossil Fuel Sources
14
132 Oil Shale Shale Oil
17
562 Hydrogen AbsorptionDesorption with OxygenContaminated Boron Film
139
563 Hydrogen Storage with Carbon Structures
140
57 Hydrogen Storage Materials
141
571 Boron Hydrides as Metal Hydrides
142
572 Hydrogen in Mechanically Milled Amorphous Boron
143
58 Hydrogen Fuel for Internal Combustion Engine
145
581 Advantages of Hydrogen as an Engine Fuel
146
582 Disadvantages of Hydrogen as an Engine Fuel
147

133 Tar Sand Bitumen
18
141 Biomass
21
142 Hydropower
25
143 Geothermal
27
144 Wind
28
145 Solar
30
146 Other Renewable Energy Sources
33
15 Nuclear Fuel Sources
36
Summary
39
Fuels from Biomass
43
22 Biomass Feedstocks
45
23 The Chemistry of Biomass
49
24 Production of Fuels from Wood Sources
52
251 Fuels from Cereal Crops
53
252 Fuels from NonCereal Crops
54
253 Fuels from Energy Crops
57
Summary
58
Biofuels
61
32 Bioethanol
64
33 Other Bioalcohols
65
34 Biorefinery
67
35 Biodiesel
71
36 Biogas
74
37 Landfill Gas
78
38 FischerTropsch Liquids from Biorenewable Feedstocks
79
Summary
82
References
83
Transportation Fuels
85
42 Liquefied Petroleum Gas
89
43 Compressed Natural Gas
91
44 Hydrogen
93
45 Electricity
94
Summary
103
References
104
Hydrogen
105
52 History
106
53 Properties of Hydrogen
107
54 Fuel Properties of Hydrogen
108
55 Hydrogen Production Processes
110
551 Hydrogen from Natural Gas by Steam Reforming
111
553 Hydrogen from Coal
113
554 Hydrogen from Water
115
555 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production
119
556 SolarPowered Hydrogen Generation
129
557 Hydrogen from Hydrogen Sulfide
130
56 Storage of Hydrogen
134
561 Hydrogen Storage with Metal Hydrides
136
59 Liquefaction and Compression of Hydrogen
148
591 Nanocatalytic Liquefaction of Hydrogen
149
Summary
152
References
153
Biohydrogen
163
62 Definition
164
64 Hydrogen from Biorenewables via Biological Processes
166
641 Hydrogen Production via Microbial Fermentation of Biomass
170
643 Biophotolytic Hydrogen Production
172
644 Dark Fermentative Hydrogen Production
174
65 Hydrogen from Biorenewables via Thermochemical Processes
176
651 Potential of Renewable Hydrogen Production
178
652 Production of Hydrogen from Biomass via Pyrolysis
179
653 Production of Hydrogen from Biomass via Gasification
186
654 Hydrogen from Biomass via NonConventional Processes
195
655 Hydrogen from Biomass Gasification by Steam Reforming
197
656 Hydrogen from Biomass via AirSteam Gasification
199
657 Hydrogen from Biomass by Supercritical Water Gasification
202
658 Hydrogenrich Gas from Shells via Supercritical Water Extraction
206
659 Production of Hydrogen from Mosses and Algae via Pyrolysis and Steam Gasification
208
Summary
214
Fuel Cells
221
711 History of Fuel Cells
222
72 Fundamentals of a Fuel Cell
224
73 Different Types of Fuel Cells
226
732 Direct Use of Methanol in Fuel Cells
228
733 Characteristics of Main Types of Fuel Cells
230
74 Catalysts Used in Fuel Cells
231
75 Use of Alternative Fuel in Fuel Cells
233
76 Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Supercapacitors
235
Summary
237
References
238
The Hydrogen Economy
241
82 Cost of Hydrogen
243
Summary
249
References
250
Hydrogen Policy
253
92 Political Environmental and Economical Impacts of Hydrogen
254
93 Global Biofuel Projections
257
Summary
260
Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen
263
102 Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen
265
Summary
268
References
269
Index
271
Copyright

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About the author (2009)

Ayhan Demirbas is a full professor at Sila Science and Energy, Turkey. He was a professor in Energy Technologies Science at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, between 1991 and 2001, and at Selcuk University, Turkey, from 2003 to 2007. His research is mainly concerned with renewable and sustainable energy.

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