## Chemoton Theory: Theory of Living SystemsDr. Gánti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. This first volume, Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries, is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their construction, starting from elementary chemical reactions up to the complex, program-directed, proliferating fluid automata, the chemotons. The second volume of the book is the Theory of Living Systems, the application of the theory of fluid automata on living systems. The volume proves, that chemotons possess the general properties of living systems and - at the same time - every living system has the same basic organisation as a chemoton. Volume Two develops on the basis of the chemoton theory, the processes of biogenesis and of the prebiotic evolution, up to the appearance of the enzymes and genes, i.e. up to the formation of prokaryote cells. Chemoton Theory outlines the development of a theoretical biology, based on exact quantitative considerations and the consequences of its application on biotechnology and on the artificial synthesis of living systems. |

### What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

### Contents

Introduction | xvii |

Constructional Elements of Fluid Machines | xxv |

Coupling of chemical reactions | 11 |

Branchings | 16 |

ORtype branchings | 19 |

The Chemical Cycle | 20 |

Cycle stoichiometry | 23 |

Examples for the application of the rules | 25 |

Chemotons | 142 |

Chemoton coupling | 145 |

Stoichiometry | 147 |

Qualitative survey of operation | 148 |

Kinetics | 150 |

Computer study of operation | 153 |

Chemoton variants | 157 |

Outlines of SelfOrganizing Fluid Computers | 161 |

Generalization of cycle stoichiometry | 28 |

Kinetics of cycles | 29 |

An example for chemical cycles | 30 |

The catalytic nature of chemical cycles | 33 |

Enzyme reactions | 37 |

General considerations | 39 |

SelfReproducing Chemical Cycles | 41 |

Simple selfreproducing cycle | 42 |

Kinetics of selfreproducing cycles | 51 |

Selfconsuming cycles | 54 |

Template processes | 55 |

Example for calculating template polymerization | 59 |

Kinetics of template polymerization | 61 |

General remarks | 65 |

Compartmentalization | 66 |

Stoichiometry | 67 |

Formal kinetics of membrane growth | 68 |

Design of Simple Fluid Machines | 71 |

Coupling of cycles with one another | 74 |

Secondgeneration cycles | 82 |

Industrial applications | 89 |

Coupling of SelfReproducing Constituents | 95 |

The coupling of a selfreproducing cycle with a reaction chain | 99 |

Oscillating reaction systems | 101 |

fluid program control | 107 |

Industrial applications | 112 |

Proliferating Fluid Automata | 119 |

Definitions | 120 |

Examples | 122 |

Proliferating Microspheres | 125 |

Coupling Stoichiometry | 126 |

growth and division | 128 |

Kinetics | 132 |

Proliferating Fluid Clockworks | 135 |

Microsphere with an oscillating chemical system | 137 |

Proliferating fluid clockworks | 139 |

Constituents of Fluid Computers | 163 |

The Iswitch | 168 |

The Fswitch | 174 |

The Cswitch | 175 |

A possible way to realize the Cswitch | 178 |

Chemotons of limited proliferation | 181 |

The Basic Network | 186 |

Operation of the basic network | 189 |

Energy supply of the basic network | 191 |

Shape recognition by light sensitivity | 192 |

Shape recognition by touching | 196 |

Coupling of the basic network to other sensors | 197 |

General remarks | 199 |

Cogitator Networks | 200 |

Networks consisting of C and Gelements | 201 |

Basic cogitator network | 204 |

Secondary wiring | 205 |

Associative network | 207 |

The dream of the associative network | 208 |

Design of Cogitators | 210 |

Decoder subunit | 212 |

Simple cogitator | 216 |

The problem solving ability of the cogitator | 218 |

Cogitators with Time Coder | 220 |

Simple fluid clockwork | 223 |

Complex fluid clockwork | 225 |

Cogitator with clockwork | 226 |

Activity Sleeping and Death | 227 |

Selective control of operation | 228 |

Sleeping and dreaming | 231 |

Toward Fluid Robots | 235 |

Fluid robots | 237 |

References | 239 |

243 | |

### Common terms and phrases

abstractor activity amount associative network autocatalytic autocatalytic cycle automaton basic network C-switch capable catalyst chemical cycles chemical reactions chemical space chemical system chemoton theory chemotons CISs coder coenzyme cogitator complex condensers conditioning connection point construction COSs cycle intermediates cycle stoichiometry decoder decreases electric signal elementary reactions elementary steps elements enzyme example external FADH2 firing pattern fluid automata fluid computers fluid machines fluid systems forced trajectories formed formose reaction functioning G-elements Ganti geometrical identical increases input interference maximum kinetic living systems maxima microsphere mole molecular molecules monomer NADH2 nucleic acid nutrient concentration operation OR-branchings oscillating oscillating reaction oscillatory outputs possible proliferating fluid raw materials reaction chain reaction system receptors self-reproducing cycle sensors shown in Fig signals arriving simultaneously sphere stimulus combination stoichiometric coefficients stoichiometric equations supersystem surface switch synchronization synthesis takes place template polymerization trajectory system transformed turning number zero-th layer