Chemoton Theory: Theory of Living Systems

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 2003 - Computers - 294 pages
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Dr. Gánti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. This first volume, Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries, is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their construction, starting from elementary chemical reactions up to the complex, program-directed, proliferating fluid automata, the chemotons. The second volume of the book is the Theory of Living Systems, the application of the theory of fluid automata on living systems. The volume proves, that chemotons possess the general properties of living systems and - at the same time - every living system has the same basic organisation as a chemoton. Volume Two develops on the basis of the chemoton theory, the processes of biogenesis and of the prebiotic evolution, up to the appearance of the enzymes and genes, i.e. up to the formation of prokaryote cells. Chemoton Theory outlines the development of a theoretical biology, based on exact quantitative considerations and the consequences of its application on biotechnology and on the artificial synthesis of living systems.
  

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Contents

Introduction
xvii
Constructional Elements of Fluid Machines
xxv
Coupling of chemical reactions
11
Branchings
16
ORtype branchings
19
The Chemical Cycle
20
Cycle stoichiometry
23
Examples for the application of the rules
25
Chemotons
142
Chemoton coupling
145
Stoichiometry
147
Qualitative survey of operation
148
Kinetics
150
Computer study of operation
153
Chemoton variants
157
Outlines of SelfOrganizing Fluid Computers
161

Generalization of cycle stoichiometry
28
Kinetics of cycles
29
An example for chemical cycles
30
The catalytic nature of chemical cycles
33
Enzyme reactions
37
General considerations
39
SelfReproducing Chemical Cycles
41
Simple selfreproducing cycle
42
Kinetics of selfreproducing cycles
51
Selfconsuming cycles
54
Template processes
55
Example for calculating template polymerization
59
Kinetics of template polymerization
61
General remarks
65
Compartmentalization
66
Stoichiometry
67
Formal kinetics of membrane growth
68
Design of Simple Fluid Machines
71
Coupling of cycles with one another
74
Secondgeneration cycles
82
Industrial applications
89
Coupling of SelfReproducing Constituents
95
The coupling of a selfreproducing cycle with a reaction chain
99
Oscillating reaction systems
101
fluid program control
107
Industrial applications
112
Proliferating Fluid Automata
119
Definitions
120
Examples
122
Proliferating Microspheres
125
Coupling Stoichiometry
126
growth and division
128
Kinetics
132
Proliferating Fluid Clockworks
135
Microsphere with an oscillating chemical system
137
Proliferating fluid clockworks
139
Constituents of Fluid Computers
163
The Iswitch
168
The Fswitch
174
The Cswitch
175
A possible way to realize the Cswitch
178
Chemotons of limited proliferation
181
The Basic Network
186
Operation of the basic network
189
Energy supply of the basic network
191
Shape recognition by light sensitivity
192
Shape recognition by touching
196
Coupling of the basic network to other sensors
197
General remarks
199
Cogitator Networks
200
Networks consisting of C and Gelements
201
Basic cogitator network
204
Secondary wiring
205
Associative network
207
The dream of the associative network
208
Design of Cogitators
210
Decoder subunit
212
Simple cogitator
216
The problem solving ability of the cogitator
218
Cogitators with Time Coder
220
Simple fluid clockwork
223
Complex fluid clockwork
225
Cogitator with clockwork
226
Activity Sleeping and Death
227
Selective control of operation
228
Sleeping and dreaming
231
Toward Fluid Robots
235
Fluid robots
237
References
239
Index
243
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