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accession countries adjustment adopt the euro anchor currency assets average Bank of Estonia Bank of Lithuania banking sector banking system budget Bulgaria candidate countries capital movements central bank commercial banks competitiveness credibility currency board arrangement currency board system Currency Commission current account deficit debt Directorate domestic Economic and Financial Economic and Monetary economic policy EMU acquis ERMII Estonian kroon Estonian monetary euro area European Commission European Union exchange rate policy exchange rate regime exports Financial Affairs financial markets financial sector fiscal policy fixed exchange rate flexibility foreign exchange framework growth Hong Kong Honohan implementation important increase inflation integration interbank interest rates investment Irish pound joining the euro liquidity litas macroeconomic Member monetary policy monetary system Monetary Union money market nominal participation payments percent period real exchange rate reserve requirement Russian crisis seigniorage stabilisation trade transition economies wages