An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 1988 - Science - 670 pages
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Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. An additional attraction of the filed is the rich diversity of topics and research methods that are collected under the umbrella-term of boundary-layer meteorology. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook. Fundamental concepts and mathematics are presented prior to their use, physical interpretations of the terms in equations are given, sample data are shown, examples are solved, and exercises are included.

The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizatlons, procedures, filed experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions. It is assumed that the work will be used at the beginning graduate level for students with an undergraduate background in meteorology, but the author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers.

 

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Contents

Mean Boundary Layer Characteristics
1
11 A BoundaryLayer Definition
2
12 Wind and Flow
3
13 Turbulent Transport
4
14 Taylors Hypothesis
5
15 Virtual Potential Temperature
7
16 Boundary Layer Depth and Structure
9
17 Micrometeorology
19
83 Structure Function
300
84 Discrete Fourier Transform
303
85 Fast Fourier Transform
310
86 Energy Spectrum
312
87 Spectral Characteristics
318
88 Spectra of Two Variables
329
89 Periodogram
335
810 Nonlocal Spectra
336

18 Significance of the Boundary Layer
21
19 General References
23
110 References for this Chapter
25
111 Exercises
26
Some Mathematical Conceptual Tools Part 1 Statistics
29
22 The Spectral Gap
33
24 Some Basic Statistical Methods
35
25 Turbulence Kinetic Energy
45
26 Kinematic Flux
47
27 Eddy Flux
51
28 Summation Notation
57
29 Stress
63
210 Friction Velocity
67
211 References
68
212 Exercises
70
Application of the Governing Equations to Turbulent Flow
75
31 Methodology
76
33 Simplifications Approximations and Scaling Arguments
80
34 Equations for Mean Variables in a Turbulent Flow
87
35 Summary of Equations with Simplifications
93
36 Case Studies
97
37 References
110
38 Exercises
111
Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes and Variances
115
42 Free Convection Scaling Variables
117
43 Prognostic Equations for Variances
120
44 Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes
134
45 References
147
46 Exercises
148
Turbulence Kinetic Energy Stability and Sealing
151
52 Contributions to the TKE Budget
153
53 TKE Budget Contributions as a Function of Eddy Size
166
54 Mean Kinetic Energy and Its Interaction with Turbulence
168
56 The Richardson Number
175
57 The Obukhov Length
180
58 Dimensionless Gradients
183
59 Miscellaneous Scaling Parameters
184
510 Combined Stability Tables
186
511 References
187
512 Exercises
189
Turbulence Closure Techniques
197
62 Parameterization Rules
200
63 Local Closure Zero and Half Order
202
64 Local Closure First Order
203
65 Local Closure Oneandahalf Order
214
66 Local Closure Second Order
220
67 Local Closure Third Order
224
68 Nonlocal Closure Transilient Turbulence Theory
225
69 Nonlocal Closure Spectral Diffusivity Theory
240
610 References
242
611 Exercises
245
Boundary Conditions and Surface Forcings
251
72 Heat Budget at the Surface
253
73 Radiation Budget
256
74 Fluxes at Interfaces
261
75 Partitioning of Flux into Sensible and Latent Portions
272
76 Flux To and From the Ground
282
77 References
289
78 Exercises
292
Some Mathematical Conceptual Tools Part 2 Time Series
295
82 Autocorrelation
296
811 Spectral Decomposition of the TKE Equation
340
812 References
342
813 Exercises
344
Similarity Theory
347
92 Buckingham Pi Dimensiortal Analysis Methods
350
93 Scaling Variables
354
94 Stable Boundary Layer Similarity Relationship Lists
360
95 Neutral Boundary Layer Similarity Relationship Lists
364
96 Convective Boundary Layer Similarity Relationship Lists
368
97 The Log Wind Profile
376
98 Rossbynurnber Similarity and Profile Matching
386
99 Spectral Similarity
389
910 Similarity Scaling Domains
394
911 References
395
912 Exercises
399
Measurement and Simulation Techniques
405
102 Sensor Lists
407
103 Active Remote Sensor Observations of Morphology
410
104 Instrument Platforms
413
105 Field Experiments
417
106 Simulation Methods
420
107 Analysis Methods
427
108 References
434
109 Exercises
438
Convective Mixed Layer
441
111 The Unstable Surface Layer
442
112 The Mixed Layer
450
113 The Entrainment Zone
473
114 Entrainment Velocity and Its Parameterization
477
115 Subsidence and Advection
483
116 References
487
117 Exercises
494
Stable Boundary Layer
499
122 Processes
506
123 Evolution
516
124 Other Depth Models
518
125 LowLevel Nocturnal Jet
520
126 Buoyancy Gravity Waves
526
127 Terrain Slope and Drainage Winds
534
128 References
538
129 Exercises
542
Boundary Layer Clouds
545
132 Radiation
555
133 Cloud Entrainment Mechanisms
558
134 Fairweather Cumulus
562
135 Stratocumulus
570
136 Fog
576
137 References
578
138 Exercises
583
Geographic Effects
587
142 Geographically Modified Flow
595
143 Urban Heat Island and the Urban Plume
609
144 References
613
145 Exercises
617
Appendices
619
Scaling Variables and Dimensionless Groups
621
Notation
629
Useful Constants Parameters and Conversion Factors
639
Derivation of Virtual Potential Temperature
645
Index
649
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Page 540 - Mahrt, L., 1985: Vertical structure and turbulence in the very stable boundary layer.

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About the author (1988)

Roland Stull is Professor and Chair of Atmospheric Sciences in the Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada, and Director of the Geophysical Disaster Computational Fluid Dynamics Center. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for sixteen years before moving to The University of British Columbia in 1995. His early work in boundary-layer meteorology took him to Africa, Europe, and many sites in America for airborne field experiments, while his current research on numerical weather prediction utilizes massively-parallel computer clusters. He has taught courses in 20 different topics, ranging from a survey course on natural disasters with enrollments of 1,000 students, to graduate-level courses on non-linear dynamics and chaos. In addition to METEOROLOGY FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS, he has written an upper-level text, AN INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER METEOROLOGY (Kluwer, (c)1989), which is now in its eighth printing. He is a Certified Consulting Meteorologist, as well as a Certified Flight Instructor in the United States.

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