## Antennas And Wave PropagationAntenna Fundamentals Introduction, Radiation mechanism - Single wire, 2 wire, Dipoles, Current distribution on a thin wire antenna. Antenna parameters - Radiation patterns, Patterns in principal planes, Main lobe and side lobes, Beamwidths, Beam area, Radiation intensity, Beam efficiency, Directivity, Gain and resolution, Antenna apertures, Aperture efficiency, Effective height related problems.Thin Linear Wire AntennasRetarded potentials, Radiation from small electric dipole, Quarterwave monopole and halfwave dipole - Current distributions, Evaluation of field components, Power radiated, Radiation resistance, Beamwidths, Directivity, Effective area and effective height. Natural current distributions, Fields and patterns of thin linear center-fed antennas of different lengths, Radiation resistance at a point which is not current maximum. Antenna theorems - Applicability and proofs for equivalence of directional characteristics, Loop antennas : Small loops - Field components, Comparison of far fields of small loop and short dipole, Concept of short magnetic dipole, D and R relations for small loops.Antenna Arrays2 element arrays - Different cases, Principle of pattern multiplication, N element uniform linear arrays - Broadside, Endfire arrays, EFA with increased directivity, Derivation of their characteristics and comparison; Concept of scanning arrays, Directivity relations (no derivations), Related problems, Binomial arrays, Effects of uniform and non-uniform amplitude distributions, Design relations.Non-Resonant RadiatorsIntroduction, Travelling wave radiators - Basic concepts, Longwire antennas - Field strength calculations and patterns, V-antennas, Rhombic antennas and design relations, Broadband antennas : Helical antennas - Significance, Geometry, Basic properties; Design considerations for monofilar helical antennas in axial mode and normal modes (Qualitative treatment).VHF, UHF and Microwave Antennas - IArrays with parasitic elements, Yagi-Uda arrays, Folded dipoles and their characteristics.Reflector antennas Flat sheet and corner reflectors, Paraboloidal reflectors - Geometry, Characteristics, Types of feeds, F/D ratio, Spill over, Back lobes, Aperture blocking, Off-set feeds, Cassegrainian feeds.VHF, UHF and Microwave Antennas - IIHorn antennas - Types, Optimum horns, Design characteristics of pyramidal horns; Lens antennas - Geometry, Features, Dielectric lenses and zoning, Applications.Antenna measurements - Patterns required, setup, Distance criterion, Directivity and gain measurements (Comparison, Absolute and 3-Antenna methods).Wave Propagation - IConcepts of propagation, Frequency ranges and types of propagations. Ground wave propagation - Characteristics, Parameters, Wave tilt, Flat and spherical earth considerations. Sky wave propagation - Formation of ionospheric layers and their characteristics, Mechanism of reflection and refraction, Critical frequency, MUF and skip distance - Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases, Optimum frequency, LUHF, Virtual height, Ionospheric abnormalities, Ionospheric absorption.Wave Propagation - IIFundamental equation for free-space propagation, Basic transmission loss calculations. Space wave propagation - Mechanism, LOS and radio horizon. Tropospheric wave propagation - Radius of curvature of path, Effective earth's radius, Effect of earth's curvature, Field strength calculations, M-curves and Duct propagation, Tropospheric scattering. |

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amplitude angle axis bandwidth beam beamwidth broadside array BWFN Consider corner reflector critical frequency current distribution current element dielectric constant dipole antenna direction distance driven element duct earth effective aperture electric field electromagnetic end fire array equal equation expression feed field strength free space given ground wave half wave dipole height helical antenna Hence Hertzian dipole high frequency horizontal horn antenna interms ionosphere isotropic layer lens antenna linear long wire antenna loop antenna magnetic field magnitude major lobe maximum radiation microstrip mode obtained parabolic reflector paraboloid parasitic element path phase plane point sources power radiated radiation pattern radiation resistance radio wave radius range ratio receiving antenna Refer section reflected reflector antenna refractive index region rhombic antenna Rrad short dipole shown side lobes signal slot space wave Substituting value terminals theorem transmission line transmitting antenna troposphere vector vertical voltage wave propagation wavelength