Biomechanics: Circulation

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 21, 1996 - Science - 572 pages
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The theory of blood circulation is the oldest and most advanced branch of biomechanics, with roots extending back to Huangti and Aristotle, and with contributions from Galileo, Santori, Descartes, Borelli, Harvey, Euler, Hales, Poiseuille, Helmholtz, and many others. It represents a major part of humanity's concept of itself. This book presents selected topics of this great body of ideas from a historical perspective, binding important experiments together with mathematical threads. The objectives and scope of this book remain the same as in the first edition: to present a treatment of circulatory biomechanics from the stand points of engineering, physiology, and medical science, and to develop the subject through a sequence of problems and examples. The name is changed from Biodynamics: Circulation to Biomechanics: Circulation to unify the book with its sister volumes, Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, and Biomechanics: Motion, Flow, Stress, and Growth. The major changes made in the new edition are the following: When the first edition went to press in 1984, the question of residual stress in the heart was raised for the first time, and the lung was the only organ analyzed on the basis of solid morphologic data and constitutive equations. The detailed analysis of blood flow in the lung had been done, but the physiological validation experiments had not yet been completed.
 

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This book requires a very strong understanding of physics and the human body. The author is absolutely brilliant in applying the concepts. Not a light read, but some very valuable information in here.

Contents

Physical Principles of Circulation
1
13 Newtons Law of Motion Applied to a Fluid
3
14 Importance of Turbulence
6
15 Principle of Heart Valve Closure
8
16 Pressure and Flow in Blood Vessels Generalized Bernoullis Equation
9
17 Analysis of Total Peripheral Flow Resistance
10
18 Importance of Blood Rheology
13
19 Mechanics of Circulation
14
54 Pressure in the Interstitial Space
278
55 Velocity Distribution in Microvessels
279
56 VelocityHematocrit Relationship
282
57 Mechanics of Flow at Very Low Reynolds Numbers
291
58 Oseens Approximation and Other Developments
298
59 Entry Flow Bolus Flow and Other Examples
300
510 Interaction Between Particles and Tube Wall
306
Sheet Flow Around a Circular Post
309

111 Energy Balance Equation
16
References
22
The Heart
23
22 Geometry and Materials of the Heart
27
23 Electric System
30
24 Mechanical Events in a Cardiac Cycle
34
25 How Are the Heart Valves Operated?
42
26 Equations of Heart Mechanics
49
27 Active Contraction of Heart Muscle
65
28 Fluid Mechanics of the Heart
69
29 Solid Mechanics of the Heart
72
210 Experimental Strain Analysis
81
211 Constitutive Equations of the Materials of the Heart
86
212 Stress Analysis
88
References
101
Blood Flow in Arteries
108
32 Laminar Flow in a Channel or Tube
114
Optimum Design of Blood Vessel Bifurcation
118
34 Steady Laminar Flow in an Elastic Tube
125
35 Dynamic Similarity Reynolds and Womersley Numbers Boundary Layers
130
36 Turbulent Flow in a Tube
134
37 Turbulence in Pulsatile Blood Flow
136
38 Wave Propagation in Blood Vessels
140
39 Progressive Waves Superposed on a Steady Flow
151
310 Nonlinear Wave Propagation
154
311 Reflection and Transmission of Waves at Junctions of Large Arteries
155
312 Effect of Frequency on the PressureFlow Relationship at any Point in an Arterial Tree
164
313 Pressure and Velocity Waves in Large Arteries
170
314 Effect of Taper
172
315 Effects of Viscosity of the Fluid and Viscoelasticity of the Wall
174
316 Influence of Nonlinearities
178
317 Flow Separation from the Wall
180
318 Flow in the Entrance Region
182
319 Curved Vessel
189
320 Messages Carried in the Arterial Pulse Waves and Clinical Applications
191
321 Biofluid and Biosolid Mechanics of Arterial Disease
192
References
200
The Veins
206
42 Concept of Elastic Instability
208
43 Instability of a Circular Cylindrical Tube Subjected to External Pressure
214
44 Vessels of Naturally Elliptic Cross Section
223
45 Steady Flow in Collapsible Tubes
227
46 Unsteady Flow in Veins
235
47 Effect of Muscle Action on Venous Flow
241
48 SelfExcited Oscillations
243
49 Forced Oscillation of Veins and Arteries Due to Unsteady Flow Turbulence Separation or Reattachment
247
410 Patency of Pulmonary Veins When the Blood Pressure Is Exceeded by Airway Pressure
252
411 Waterfall Condition in the Lung
261
References
262
Microcirculation
266
52 Anatomy of Microvascular Beds
267
53 Pressure Distribution in Microvessels
274
512 Force of Interaction of Leukocytes and Vascular Endothelium
316
513 Local Control of Blood Flow
324
References
328
Blood Flow in the Lung
333
62 Pulmonary Blood Vessels
335
63 Pulmonary Capillaries
340
Shape of the Alveoli and Alveolar Ducts
348
65 Spatial Distribution of Pulmonary Arterioles and Venules
350
66 Relative Positions of Pulmonary Arterioles and Venules and Alveolar Ducts
354
67 Elasticity of Pulmonary Arteries and Veins
357
68 Elasticity of Pulmonary Alveolar Sheet
366
69 Apparent Viscosity of Blood in Pulmonary Capillaries
369
610 Formulation of the Analytical Problems
372
611 An Elementary Analog of the Theory
378
612 General Features of Sheet Flow
382
613 PressureFlow Relationship of Pulmonary Alveolar Blood Flow
389
614 Blood Flow in the Whole Lung
393
615 Regional Difference of Pulmonary Blood Flow
404
616 Patchy Flow in the Lung
408
617 Analysis of Flow Through a Pulmonary Sluicing Gate
409
618 Stability of a Collapsing Pulmonary Alveolar Sheet
417
619 Hysteresis in the PressureFlow Relationship of Pulmonary Blood Flow in Zone2 Condition
423
620 Distribution of Transit Time in the Lung
429
621 Pulmonary Blood Volume
434
622 Pulsatile Blood Flow in the Lung
435
623 Fluid Movement in the Interestitial Space of the Pulmonary Alveolar Sheet
438
Coronary Blood Flow
446
73 Coronary Veins
458
74 Coronary Capillaries
467
75 Analysis of Coronary Diastolic Arterial Blood Flow with Detailed Anatomical Data
472
76 Morphometry of Vascular Remodeling
478
77 In Vivo Measurements of the Dimensions of Coronary Blood Vessels
480
78 Mechanical Properties of Coronary Blood Vessels
485
LengthTension Relationship of Vascular Smooth Muscle
489
Effect of Shear Stress on the Endothelium on Smooth Muscle LengthTension Relationship
495
712 Regulation and Autoregulation of Coronary Blood Flow
501
713 PressureFlow Relationship of Coronary Circulation
503
714 Model of Coronary Waterfall
507
References
509
Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle
514
83 Skeletal Muscle Arterioles and Venules
519
84 Capillary Blood Vessels in Skeletal Muscle
522
85 Resistance to Flow in Capillaries
527
87 Constitutive and Hemodynamic Equations of Skeletal Muscle Vasculature
532
88 Pulsatile Flow in Single Vessel
533
810 Finite ZeroFlow Arterial Pressure Gradient in Skeletal Muscle
538
811 Fluid Pump Mechanism in Initial Lymphatics
540
References
543
Author Index
547
Subject Index
557
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