Chiral Chromatography

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John Wiley & Sons, 1998 - Science - 506 pages
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Chiral Chromatography Thomas E. Beesley Advanced Separation Technologies Inc., Whippany, New Jersey, USA Raymond P. W. Scott Chemistry Department, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA and Chemistry Department, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK Analytical techniques based on separation processes, such as chromatography and electrophoresis, are finding a growing range of applications in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical laboratories. The Wiley Separation Science Series provides the analyst in these laboratories with well-focused books covering individual techniques, so that they can be applied more efficiently and effectively to contemporary analytical problems. The different enantiomers of a drug can exhibit widely different physiological activity in degree and nature. As a result, the separation and identification of enantiomers is now a very important analytical problem and chiral chromatography is the natural technique to apply to the resolution of such mixtures. Chiral Chromatography provides the reader with a basic understanding of the nature of chromatographic separations and relates the principles specifically to the separation of enantiomers. The following information is included:
* chiral separations involving both gas and liquid chromatography
* descriptions of the apparatus used for both techniques
* detailed discussion on the retention mechanism that results in chiral selectivity
* the structure and synthesis of a wide range of chirally active stationary phases used in both gas and liquid chromatography
* preparative applications for large scale purification of enantiomers
* applications of capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography.
In addition to the above, a large number of examples of the separation of both commercially and physiologically interesting chiral mixtures are given, as is a detailed discussion on the mechanism of selectivity of each example. Thomas Beesley was founder and is the CEO for a leading manufacturer of chiral stationary phases and has published papers on TLC, HPLC and chiral separations involving cyclodextrins. He has also coauthored papers with Daniel W. Armstrong, an expert on modern cyclodextrin columns. Raymond Scott has worked in the field of separation science for over 40 years and has contributed extensively to the development of both gas and liquid chromatography publishing over 160 papers on the subjects.
 

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Contents

Chapter
1
Configuration Specifications
15
CHAPTER 2
29
The Availability of the Stationary Phase
47
Synopsis
76
Sampling Devices
83
Detectors
89
The Nitrogen Phosphorous Detector NPD
97
Synopsis
261
The Preparation of Protein Stationary Phases
268
The Preparation of the Macrocyclic Glycopeptides Phases
275
Column Packing Techniques
281
Synopsis
289
Chapter 10
291
An Optimization Procedure for a Chiral Separation
297
Synopsis
313

Data Acquisition and Processing
103
Chiral stationary Phases for Gas Chromatography
112
Factors Controlling Selectivity
123
Capillary Column Design and Choice
129
Stationary Phases for the GC Separation of Chiral Substances
136
Test Mixtures
143
Selectivity Characteristics of the Different Cyclodextrins
149
Chiral Separations of Essential Oils
156
Pharmaceutical Applications of Chiral Gas Chromatography
165
Synopsis
171
Liquid Chromatography Detectors
185
The Electrical Conductivity Detector
193
The Fluorescence Detector
195
The Refractive Index Detector
204
Data Acquisition and Processing
212
References
219
Chiral Stationary Phases
229
of a Leukotriene Antagonist
322
The Cellulose and Amylose Stationary Phases
336
The Macrocyclic Glycopeptide Stationary Phases
347
The Cyclodextrin Based Stationary Phase
358
Synopsis
371
Sample Mass Overload
385
The Preparative Separation of the Enantiomers of Chlorokynurenine
409
Application Examples
425
Synopsis
433
Chiral Gas Chromatography
439
Chiral Liquid Chromatography
446
The Pirkle Stationary Phases
454
The Cyclodextrin Bonded Phases
460
The Pirkle Stationary Phases
473
The Macrocyclic Glycopeptide Stationary Phases
482
Appendix
497
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About the author (1998)

Thomas E. Beesley Advanced Separation Technologies Inc., Whippany, New Jersey, USA Raymond P.W. Scott Chemistry Department, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA and Chemistry Department, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK

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