Basic structure of computersComputer types, Functional unit, Basic OPERATIONAL concepts, Bus structures, Software, Performance, Multiprocessors and multi computers. Data representation. Fixed point representation. Floating - Point representation. Error detection codes. Register transfer language and microoperationsRegister transfer language, Register transfer bus and memory transfers, Arithmetic micro operations, Logic micro operations, Shift micro operations, Arithmetic logic shift unit. Instruction codes. Computer registers computer instructions, Instruction cycle, Memory : Reference instructions. Input/output and interrupt. STACK organization, Instruction formats. Addressing modes. Data transfer and manipulation. Program control. Reduced instruction set computer.Microprogrammed controlControl memory, Address sequencing, Microprogram example, Design of control unit hard wired control, Microprogrammed control.Computer arithmeticAddition and subtraction, Multiplication algorithms, Division algorithms floating-point arithmetic operations. Decimal arithmetic unit decimal arithmetic operations.The memory systemBasic concepts semiconductor RAM memories. Read-only memories, Cache memories performance considerations, Virtual memories secondary storage. Introduction to RAID.Input/output organizationPeripheral devices, Input/output interface, Asynchronous data transfer modes of transfer, Priority interrupt direct memory access, Input/output processor (IOP) serial communication; Introduction to peripheral component, Interconnect (PCI) bus, Introduction to standard serial communication protocols like RS232, USB, IEEE1394.Pipeline and vector processing Parallel processing, Pipelining, Arithmetic pipeline, Instruction pipeline, RISC pipeline vector processing, Array processors.MultiprocessorsCharacteristics of multiprocessors, Interconnection structures, Interprocessor arbitration, Inter processor communication and synchronization cache coherence, Shared memory multiprocessors.