Concepts of Ecology
Among the many features of this fourth edition: New graphics and photographs.Expanded coverage of abiotic factors including water, air, insolation, precipitation, soils, nutrients, ionizing radiation, and fire.Updated and expanded coverage of energy flow (with increased emphasis on decomposition), biogeochemical cycling, and population and community ecology.Expanded section on human ecology with separate chapters on the human population and anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.An introduction to ecological ethics.Literature citations incorporated into the text and an amalgamated list of references.A listing of key words and key points for each chapter.
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THE NATURE OF ECOSYSTEMS
The Abiotic Environment
INSOLATION PRECIPITATION AND CLIMATE
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acid adapted agricultural algae amount animals annual aquatic ecosystems areas atmosphere autotrophs bacteria biological biomass biome biotic calcium carbon dioxide changes chemical climate competition components curve cycle deciduous decomposition decrease denitrification density desert desertification detritus discussion ecological ecologists ecosys effects energy flow environment environmental eutrophication example factors fertility Figure fire forest global grasslands gross production herbivores heterotrophic human increase input interaction intraspecific competition Lake latitude litter major metabolism million mineral mortality natural nitrate nitrification nitrogen cycle nitrogen fixation nutrients occur ocean organic matter oxide oxygen ozone parasite particulates patterns percent period phosphorus photosynthesis plants pollution population growth precipitation predation processes radiation Redrawn by permission reduced regions regulation reproductive respiration result seasonal sediments significant soil solar species structure sulfur surface survivorship survivorship curve Table temperature terrestrial tion trees trophic level tropical United uptake vegetation zone