Destructive Distillation: A Manualette of the Paraffin, Coal Tar, Rosin Oil, Petroleum, and Kindred Industries

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Gurney & Jackson, 1892 - Distillation, Destructive - 200 pages
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Page 193 - Coal and Iron. THE COAL AND IRON INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. Comprising a Description of the Coal Fields, and of the Principal Seams of Coal, with Returns of their Produce and its Distribution, and Analyses of Special Varieties. Also an Account of the occurrence of Iron Ores in Veins or Seams; Analyses of each Variety; and a History of the Rise and Progress of Pig Iron Manufacture since the year 1740, exhibiting the Economies introduced in the Blast Furnaces for its Production and Improvement.
Page 101 - Throughout this immense basin, the waters falling on the surface are, in part, absorbed into the rocks and conveyed towards its centre, where a strong artesian flow of water would prevail were the difference in altitude greater; and the light hydrocarbons floating upon the surface of this ground water are driven into the dome, and there subjected to hydrostatic pressure equal to the weight of a column of water whose height is the difference in altitude between the water surface within the dome and...
Page 99 - The main requisites for a productive oil- or gas-field are a porous reservoir (sandstone or limestone) and an impervious cover. 5. Both in comparatively undisturbed and in highly disturbed areas, an anticlinal structure often favours the accumulation of oil and gas in the domes of the arches.
Page 104 - In Europe and Asia the petroleumbearing beds are of Secondary or Tertiary age, the Palaeozoic rocks yielding only an insignificant supply. In North-west Germany we find petroleum in the Keuper Beds, and more or less in other strata up to and including the Gault. As we pass to the south and south-east from this district we find, as a general rule, that oil occurs in newer strata. The various productive horizons of different districts are as follows:— North-west Germany ... . Keuper to Gault.
Page 103 - Territories there seem to be great stores of oil in Devonian rocks. Gas and oil now found in Cretaceous strata of the prairies and Athabasca may have been derived from underlying Devonian rocks ; but in the Rocky Mountains, at Crow's Nest Pass, oil is probably native to the Cretaceous beds. In Mexico, the West Indies, and parts of South America, Tertiary strata seem to be the chief source of oil. The age of the petroleumbearing unfossiliferous sands...
Page 186 - The coal in this part of the retort is distilled, and parts with gases and vapours, which pass away by the exitpipe to be cooled and condensed. As the coke passes down in the retort, it is met by a current of steam, which is partly decomposed, burning the carbon, and producing ammonia and " water-gas," which pass off along with the other volatile products.
Page 98 - 2. There is no relation to true volcanic action. 3. The most productive areas for oil in great quantity are where the strata are comparatively undisturbed. Oil, but in less abundance, frequently occurs when the strata are highly disturbed and contorted...
Page 102 - Silurian to Tertiary : both gas and oil also occur in the drifts. Rocks of Secondary age, however, with the exception of the Cretaceous, are not oil-bearing in North America. In Europe, only small quantities occur in Palaeozoic rocks. In Hanover it ranges from Trias to Cretaceous. In Eastern Europe it is mainly Tertiary, and wholly so in the Caucasus. . In other parts of the world the petroleum-bearing beds are, so far as is known, rarely of older date than Upper Secondary. Volcanic rocks occasionally...
Page 104 - ... the strata into distinct productive horizons. In Algeria oil occurs in Lower Tertiary beds. The Egyptian petroleum comes from Miocene strata. Petroleum seems to be unknown in peninsular India ; but it occurs in many places along the flanks of the Himalayan range, and also in Lower Burma, generally in Lower Tertiary strata. In Upper Burma and Japan the oil-bearing- rocks are probably Newer Tertiary. In all these areas the beds are greatly disturbed, and the same is the case with the great Carpathian...
Page 101 - ... pressure equal to the weight of a column of water whose height is the difference in altitude between the water surface within the dome and the land surface of the catchment area about the rim of the enclosing basin. Accordingly, the static pressure is independent of the absolute altitude of the gas-rock and of its depth beneath the surface, except in so far as these are involved in the relative altitudes of the gas-rock and a catchment area, perhaps scores or even hundreds of miles distant. Gas...

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