## Electrical Circuits And MachinesTransformersSingle Phase Transformers : Ideal & Practical Transformers, Equivalent circuit, Determination of transformer parameters (O.C. and S.C. tests), Efficiency and regulation of transformer. Design of single phase transformer for instrument power supply. Coupled circuit. Special Transformer : (Theoretical treatment only) Auto transformer, Current transformer, Induction heating transformers, Isolation transformers, Ferrite core transformer, Welding transformer, Phase shift transformer, Three phase transformer, Star/Delta, Delta/Star, Application of each Type.D.C. MachinesD.C. Generator : Construction, Types, Role of commutator, Induced emf equation, Characteristics and applications. D.C. Motors : Operation, Types, Losses, Basic equations of DC motors, Torque-speed characteristics, Speed control methods, Speed regulation, Starters (manual, electronic), Braking and applications.Active, Reactive and Apparent PowerInstantaneous power, Active power, Reactive power, Power factor, Distinction between active and reactive power, Combined active and reactive loads (apparent power). Measurement and calculation of active, Reactive power and Power factor in 3 balanced circuit using two wattmeter and one wattmeter. Measurement of 1 and 3 power using CT and PT. Electronic meters for energy measurement. Introduction to energy audit.Three Phase Induction MotorsConstruction, Operation, Types, Equivalent circuit, Torque-slip characteristics, Slip and torque equations, Maximum torque, Starting torque, Full load torque, Condition for maximum torque, Power flow diagram, Starters for IM (manual and soft starters). Introduction to speed control, Braking, Protection circuits (e.g. single phase preventer, ELCB, MCB) and Applications.Synchronous MachinesSynchronous Generators : Construction, Types (rotating field & rotating armature), Synchronous speed and emf equation. Coil span factor and distribution factor (derivation not expected). Alternator on no load and on load, Armature reaction in 3-phase alternators, Regulation of alternator by synchronous impedance method. Synchronous Motors : Construction, Operation, Effect of variation of load, Hunting, V curves, Starting methods, Synchronous condenser, Applications.Special Purpose MachinesPrinciple of operation, Working, Types and applications of single phase IM, Universal motors, Reluctance motor, Stepper motors, AC & DC servomotors. |

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### Contents

Table of Contents | 1 |

Examples with Solutions | 65 |

Review Questions Sectionwise | 84 |

Chapter 2 Special Transformers 90 to | 136 |

C Generators | 137 |

Examples with Solutions | 170 |

Chapter 3 D C Generators 137 to | 180 |

Chapter 4 D C Motors 181 to | 270 |

Examples with Solutions | 522 |

Review Questions Sectionwise | 541 |

Alternators 478 to | 545 |

Examples with Solutions | 576 |

Review Questions Sectionwise | 587 |

Chapter 8 Synchronous Motors 546 to | 591 |

Chapter 9 Special Purpose Motors 592 to | 608 |

Chapter10 Stepper Motors | 609 |

iapter5 Active Reactive and Apparent Power | 271 |

Chapter 5 Active Reactive and Apparent Power 271 to | 355 |

Chapter6 Three Phase Induction Motors | 356 |

Review Questions Sectionwise | 470 |

Chapter 6 Three Phase Induction Motors 356 to | 477 |

5Stator | 481 |

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### Common terms and phrases

0.8 lagging a.c. supply angle armature current armature resistance armature winding autotransformer back e.m.f. Calculate called characteristics constant copper loss core d.c. machine d.c. motor d.c. series motor d.c. shunt motor delta connected efficiency electrical energy equation equivalent circuit excitation Explain field current field resistance flux produced frequency Hence high voltage hysteresis impedance increases induced e.m.f. input iron losses Key Point line current load condition load torque maximum torque number of turns open circuit output phase induction motor phase voltage phasor diagram power factor pulse rated ratio reactance rheostat rotating magnetic field rotor resistance S.C. test servomotor short circuit shown shunt field single phase transformer slip ring slots star connected starter starting torque stator stepper motor supply voltage synchronous motor synchronous speed terminal voltage torque volt amperes voltage drop volts wattmeter watts