English in Language Shift: The History, Structure and Sociolinguistics of South African Indian English
Rajend Mesthrie examines the rise of a new variety of English among Indian migrant workers indentured on the plantations of Natal in South Africa. Considering the historical background to, and linguistic consequences of, language shift in an immigrant context, he draws significant parallels between second language acquisition and the processes of pidginisation and creolisation. South African Indian English is compared with other dialects in South Africa, with English in India, and with Englishes generally.
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the shaping of a New English
a first glimpse
the relative clause
4 Wordorder principles
5 Nonsyntactic variation
6 Perspectives from secondlanguage acquisition
7 Perspectives from pidgin and Creole studies
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acr-R acrolect acrolectal speakers Afrikaans ancestral language auxiliary background bas-R basilect and mesolect basilectal speakers Bhojpuri Bickerton Butler English cent characteristic construction continuum copula correlations creole creolisation decreolisation deﬁned deﬁnite developed discourse do-support donno Dravidian Dravidian languages Durban English English equivalent example Fanagalo ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁnish ﬁrst ﬁrst language ﬁve focus focussing function Gujarati indentured Indian English Indian language Indic inﬂuence interview involves language shift learners lectal groups lects lexical linguistic marker mes-R mesolect mesolect 75 mesolectal speakers modals morphology Natal negation nouns object embedding occur one’s OV languages patterns pidgin plural pre-basilectal speakers preposition pronoun questions reduplication relative clauses relative-clause usage relativisation SAIE speakers second-language acquisition semantic sentence shows signiﬁcant social South African English speciﬁc speech standard English strategies style substrate syntactic syntax Table Tamil target language Telugu topicalisation topics Total Urdu variables variation varieties of English verb vernacular y’know