Feeding the Baniya: Peasants and Usurers in Western India
In this detailed and comprehensive study of the relationship between peasants and Baniya usurers in western India, David Hardiman examines how and why usurers have, over the centuries, managed to exert their power over the peasantry. An explanation purely in terms of the economics of the relationship is, he argues, not adequate. Crucial also has been the support extended to the Baniyas by successive states from pre-colonial to colonial times. But over and above this is the ideological or hegemonic power that Baniyas have been able to exert over their clients. Applying insights derived from the works of Gramsci, Foucault and Bourdieu, Hardiman explores the nature of this hegemony, seeing how a shared set of beliefs could help the Baniyas consolidate their power. Despite this, the relationship was by no means a harmonious one. There was a whole range of tensions which at times gave rise to protest and resistance. The history of peasant resistance to Baniya usury is examined here in depth. This book, by a leading 'Subaltern' historian, provides important insights into the social, economic and cultural history of the subaltern classes of rural India. It will interest historians, sociologists, anthropologists and political economists, as well as activists working in rural areas.
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Chapter Two Usury Under the Old Regimes
Chapter Three Usury and the Colonial State
Chapter Four The Baniyas Life and Faith
12 other sections not shown
adivasi Agrarian agricultural Ahmadnagar district Ahmedabad Ajmer Ajmer-Merwara amongst Appendix attack band Baniya sahukars Baniya usurers Baniyas Banking Baroda Bhavnagar Bhils Bombay Presidency BPBEC Brahman British capital capitalist caste cent civil courts clients co-operatives collector of Ahmadnagar Collector's Report colonial crops cultivate debt debtors Deccan Agriculturists Delhi demand dominant Economic eighteenth century example famine grain Gujarat harvest hegemony Honiya honour Ibid India Jain Jain Baniyas Jodhpur Khandesh Kheda district Koli Kunbi labour land large number loans Mahadev Kolis mahajans Maharashtra Maratha Marwari medieval merchants and usurers moneylenders moral mortgage Mughal Nasik nineteenth century officials Panchmahals district Patidar peasantry peasants police pre-colonial Pune district Raghu Rajasthan Rajput rates of interest refused region repay revolt rule rulers Rural Credit sahukars social society Surat taluka town trade Tukaram usurers usury village western India