Female Genital Mutilation: A Practical Guide to Worldwide Laws & Policies
Zed Books, Sep 30, 2000 - Political Science - 249 pages
This is the most extensive report currently available on the use of law and policy to address the practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation (FC/FGM). In encouraging a proactive governmental response to the practice, the book places it firmly in a human rights and legal framework. The result of a major research report in 41 countries, both North and South, it covers not only the prevalence of FC/FGM but the various laws and other measures in place to prevent it.
The book describes FC/FGM, its history, its consequences for health and the movement now working to combat it. It then reports on each country - its prevalence and governmental measures for its eradication.
FC/FGM is not exclusively a concern of African governments. Countries of the North have also adopted legal measures aimed at preventing the practice. These measures, however, are clearly directed at their immigrant populations. This throws up a classic dilemma of human rights work: whether or not to fight for rights that are seen as universal and fundamental - in this case the bodily integrity of women - when it means overriding the cultural beliefs of individuals, or minority groups.
Finding a solution to this problem is the second aim of this book. The authors suggest an answer through the actual implementation of human rights treaties. They look at how FC/FGM violates these rights for women: specifically freedom from gender discrimination and violence, the right to health and the rights of children.
The last section of the book makes recommendations for action by governments, the international community, and non-governmental organizations.
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Background and History
Duties of Governments Under Human Rights Law
Recommendations for Governments
Legal and Policy Strategies for NGOs with a Brief Review of Existing Approaches
Review of Programmatic Approaches
Nationallevel Legal Measures
Treaty ratification by country
Prevalence rates and official action against FCFGM
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of Congo
Other editions - View all
address FC/FGM Article Banjul Charter ratified Burkina Faso capita GNP Children's Rights Convention Civil and Political Convention ratified 1990 Cote d'lvoire Criminal law CRLP Cultural Rights Covenant Declaration Discrimination Against Women Economic eliminate FC/FGM Enforcement ensure FC/FGM most commonly female circumcision Female Genital Cutting Female Genital Mutilation Gambia groups that practice harmful human rights treaties Ibid imprisonment Income per capita infibulation international human rights International Treaties labia minora legislation National Laws Constitution NGOs Number of women organizations Penal Code person physical integrity Political Rights Covenant Population millions population under 15 practice FC/FGM practice of FC/FGM Prevalence of FC/FGM procedure programs prohibiting FC/FGM provides punishment Regulations and Policies religious reproductive health Republic Rights Covenant ratified Senegal sexual Social and Cultural Somalia stop FC/FGM Sudan Traditional Practices undergo FC/FGM United Nations violations women and girls women per 100 Women's Convention ratified World Health Organization