Field-Programmable Gate Array Technology

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 1994 - Computers - 258 pages
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Many different kinds of FPGAs exist, with different programming technologies, different architectures and different software. Field-Programmable Gate Array Technology describes the major FPGA architectures available today, covering the three programming technologies that are in use and the major architectures built on those programming technologies. The reader is introduced to concepts relevant to the entire field of FPGAs using popular devices as examples.
Field-Programmable Gate Array Technology includes discussions of FPGA integrated circuit manufacturing, circuit design and logic design. It describes the way logic and interconnect are implemented in various kinds of FPGAs. It covers particular problems with design for FPGAs and future possibilities for new architectures and software. This book compares CAD for FPGAs with CAD for traditional gate arrays. It describes algorithms for placement, routing and optimization of FPGAs.
Field-Programmable Gate Array Technology describes all aspects of FPGA design and development. For this reason, it covers a significant amount of material. Each section is clearly explained to readers who are assumed to have general technical expertise in digital design and design tools. Potential developers of FPGAs will benefit primarily from the FPGA architecture and software discussion. Electronics systems designers and ASIC users will find a background to different types of FPGAs and applications of their use.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 What is an FPGA?
2
13 Advantages of FPGAs
4
Low Tooling Costs
5
Effective Design Verification
6
StandardProduct Advantages
7
Life Cycle Advantages
8
Speed of Circuitry
9
Act2 Architecture
113
Act3 Architecture
117
Programming and Testing
118
Capacity
124
Performance
127
34 Software
128
35 The Future
132
36 Design Applications
133

15 Technology Trends
10
Architecture
11
17 Outline of Subsequent Chapters
12
2 Programming Technology
13
SRAM Programmable FPGAs
15
Advantages and Disadvantages of SRAM Programming
17
23 Device Architecture
19
Design Tradeoffs
23
The Xilinx XC2000 Architecture
29
The Xilinx XC3000 Architecture
35
The Xilinx XC4000 Architecture
43
Programming the FPGA
52
24 Software
53
Automated Design Implementation
54
TechnologySpecific Synthesis
63
25 The Future
65
Architecture
66
Partitioning in Space and Time
67
26 Design Applications
68
Counter Examples
70
Efficient Multiplication by a Constant in an Artificial Neural Network
75
Distributed Arithmetic for Signal Processing
77
Applications of Reprogramming
79
A Fast Video Controller
83
A Position Tracker For a Robot Manipulator
84
A Fast DMA Controller
85
Custom Computing Applications
87
27 Acknowledgments
90
28 References
91
Antifuse Programmed FPGAs
97
32 Programming Technology
99
33 Device Architecture
103
Routing Architecture of the Actel FPGAs
108
Act1 Architecture
110
A TTL Perspective
137
Migrating PLD Designs to FPGAs
140
Synthesis Design Flow
143
Designing Counters with ACT Devices
144
Designing Adders and Accumulators with the ACT Architecture
153
State Machine Design
160
Using FPGAs for Digital PLLs
164
Customer Design Examples
167
37 Acknowledgments
168
Erasable Programmable Logic Devices
171
42 Programming Technology
173
Logic Structures Using EPROM Transistors
175
43 Device Architecture
179
Macrocell Architecture
180
Programmable FlipFlops
181
Programmable Clock
182
Functional Testing
183
Architectural Evolution in ArrayBased PLDs
184
432 The MAX Multiple Array matriX Product Family
187
433 MAX 7000
195
MaskProgrammed Logic Devices
200
44 Software
204
45 The Future
218
46 Design Applications
224
462 Using Expanders to Build Registered Logic in MAX EPLDs
228
463 Simulating Internal Buses in GeneralPurpose EPLDs
233
464 Fast Bus Controllers with the EPM5016
238
465 Micro Channel Bus Master and SDP Logic with the EPM5032 EPLD
240
466 FIFO Controller Using an EPM7096
243
467 Integrating an Intelligent IO Subsystem with a Single EPM5130 EPLD
246
468 Controlling Complex CCD Imaging Systems with the EPS464 EPLD
247
47 References
250
Index
253
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