Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research

Front Cover
`I read this book in a single sitting. It is written in an enthusiastic, helpful and clear style that held my attention, and made me want to read what came next. I shall read it again in a single sitting - probably more than once. For it offers common-sense advice about planning and running focus groups which I will want to revisit′ - British Journal of Education Technology

The Third Edition of the `standard′ for learning how to conduct a focus group contains: a new chapter comparing and contrasting market research, academic, nonprofit and participatory approaches to focus group research; expanded descriptions on how to plan focus group studies and do the analysis, including step-by-step procedures; examples of questions that ask participants to do more than just discuss, and suggestions on how to answer questions about your focus group research.

 

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Definición de que es un focus Group

Contents

Overview of Focus Groups
3
The Focus Group Is a Special Type of Group
4
The Story Behind Focus Group Interviews
5
Why Do Focus Groups Work?
7
Characteristics of Focus Groups
10
Focus Groups Provide Qualitative Data
11
Focus Groups Have a Focused Discussion
12
Product or Program Development
13
PreSession Strategy
103
Snacks and Meals
104
Recording the Group Discussion
105
Beginning the Focus Group Discussion
107
Anticipating the Flow of the Discussion
108
The Pause and the Probe
109
Experts Dominant Talkers Shy Participants and Ramblers
111
Responding to Participants Comments
112

Customer Satisfaction
15
Planning and Goal Setting
16
Quality Movements
17
Policy Making and Testing
18
Planning the Focus Group Study
21
Deciding If Focus Group Interviewing Is the Right Method
23
When to Use Focus Group Interviews
24
When Not to Use FOCMS Group Interviews
25
Determining How Many Groups to Conduct
26
Balancing the Design With the Resources Available
28
SingleCategory Design
30
MultipleCategory Design
31
DoubleLayer Design
32
BroadInvolvement Design
33
Listening to Your Target Audience
34
Developing a Written Plan
36
SUMMARY
37
Developing a Questioning Route
39
Qualities of Good Questions
40
Are Easy to Say
41
Include Clear WellThoughtOut Directions
42
Moves From General to Specific
43
Opening Questions
44
Transition Questions
45
Questions That Engage Participants
47
Listing Things
48
Rating Items
49
Choosing Among Alternatives Pilot Testing Ideas
50
Picture Sort
51
Using Your Imagination
53
Doing Something Before the Focus Group
55
The Process We Use to Develop a Questioning Route
56
Step 2 Phrasing the Questions
57
Step 3 Sequencing the Questions
61
Step 4 Estimating Time for Questions
63
Step 5 Getting Feedback From Others
65
The Importance of Consistency
66
SUMMARY
67
Participants in a Focus Group
69
The Purpose Drives the Study
70
The Composition of the Group
71
The Size of a Focus Group
73
Strategies for Finding Participants
75
On Location
76
ScreeningSelection Services
77
Ads or Announcements in Newspapers and Bulletin Boards
78
Strategies for Selecting Participants
79
Use the Resources of the Sponsoring Organization in Recruiting
80
Randomly Select From Your Pool
81
Users May Differ in Ways That Can Affect the Study
82
Getting People to Attend Focus Groups
84
1 Set the Meeting Dates Times Locations
86
2 Make Personal Contacts With Potential Participants
87
3 Send a Personalized FollowUp Letter
89
Incentives to Participate
90
SUMMARY
93
Telephone Screening Questionnaire
94
FollowUp Recruitment Letter
95
Moderating Skills
97
The Moderating Team
101
Mental Preparation
102
Short Verbal Responses
113
Responding to Participants Questions
114
Be Ready for the Unexpected
115
Hazardous Weather Occurs Just Hours Before the Meeting
116
The Meeting Place Is Inadequate
117
Participants Bring Other Adults
118
The Early Questions Take Too Much Time Leaving Little Time to Ask the Final Questions
119
Checklist for Focus Group Interviews
120
Responsibilities of Assistant Moderators
121
Tips on Using Money as an Incentive
123
Analyzing Focus Group Results
125
The Purpose Drives Analysis
127
Understanding Analysis
128
Setting the Stage for Analysis
129
What Gets Used as the Basis for Analysis
130
Tape Based Abridged Transcript
131
Analysis Strategies
132
Using the Computer to Help Manage the Data
137
Rapid Approach
138
Some Tips to Consider
139
Beware of Personal Bias or Preexisting Opinions About the Topic
140
You Are the Voice of the Participants
141
Transcribing Focus Groups
142
Reporting Five Principles of Reporting
145
Involve People Throughout the Study
146
Find What Helps You Write
147
Make the Report Visually Attractive
148
Eulleted Report
150
Oral Reports
151
Cite the Most Important Things First
152
Limit Your Points
153
Select the Right Reporter
154
SUMMARY
155
Styles of Focus Group Research
157
Academic Research Approach
159
PublicNonprofit Approach
162
Participatory Approach
165
SUMMARY
169
Adapting Focus Groups to Audiences and Environments
171
Focus Groups With Existing Groups and Organizations
172
Focus Group Interviews With Young People
176
Focus Groups With Ethnic or Minority Racial Groups
181
Focus Groups With International Groups and Organizations
183
SUMMARY
185
Modifications of Focus Groups
187
Two Moderators
188
Telephone Focus Groups
189
Media Focus Groups
190
Issues When Adapting Focus Groups
191
SUMMARY
192
Answering Questions About the Quality of Focus Group Research
195
Is This Scientific Research?
198
How Do You Know Your Findings Arent Just Your Subjective Opinions?
199
Isnt This Soft Research?
201
Can You Generalize?
203
Why Dont You Use Random Sampling?
204
How Big Is the Sample? or How Can You Make Those Statements With Such a Small Sample?
205
References
207
Index
209
About the Authors
215
Copyright

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About the author (2000)

Richard Krueger is professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota. He is an internationally recognized authority on the use of focus group interviewing within the public environment. For 25 years he served as evaluation leader for the University of Minnesota Extension Service followed by 10 years teaching graduate courses in program evaluation and research methodology. He is a former president of the American Evaluation Association and a member of the Qualitative Research Consultants Association. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. In his spare time he repairs his motorcycle, swaps stories with friends, and shops for tools at the local hardware store. Maybe you’ve seen him there.

Mary Anne Casey is an evaluator, writer, and teacher. She has been an evaluation consultant at the international, national, state, and local levels on topics relating to health, public policy, community development, agriculture, and the environment. Mary Anne has had the privilege of asking questions and listening, and the challenge of providing useful, enlightening results to clients. She relishes analysis and finding just the right way to convey what people have shared. She weaves the lessons she has learned into her work, her writing on focus group interviewing, and her teaching at the University of Minnesota, University of South Florida, and University of Michigan. Mary Anne previously worked for the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the state of Minnesota. She received her PhD from the University of Minnesota. She gets her best insights while in the shower or on long walks.

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