Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research

Front Cover
`I read this book in a single sitting. It is written in an enthusiastic, helpful and clear style that held my attention, and made me want to read what came next. I shall read it again in a single sitting - probably more than once. For it offers common-sense advice about planning and running focus groups which I will want to revisit′ - British Journal of Education Technology

The Third Edition of the `standard′ for learning how to conduct a focus group contains: a new chapter comparing and contrasting market research, academic, nonprofit and participatory approaches to focus group research; expanded descriptions on how to plan focus group studies and do the analysis, including step-by-step procedures; examples of questions that ask participants to do more than just discuss, and suggestions on how to answer questions about your focus group research.

 

What people are saying - Write a review

User Review - Flag as inappropriate

Definición de que es un focus Group

Contents

Overview of Focus Groups
5
The Focus Group Is a Special Type of Group
6
The Story Behind Focus Group Interviews
7
Why Do Focus Groups Work?
9
Characteristics of Focus Groups
12
Focus Groups Provide Qualitative Data
13
Focus Groups Have a Focused Discussion
14
Product or Program Development
15
Mental Preparation
104
PreSession Strategy
105
Snacks and Meals
106
Recording the Group Discussion
107
Beginning the Focus Group Discussion
109
Anticipating the Flow of the Discussion
110
The Pause and the Probe
111
Experts Dominant Talkers Shy Participants and Ramblers
113

Customer Satisfaction
17
Planning and Goal Setting
18
Quality Movements
19
Policy Making and Testing
20
Planning the Focus Group Study
23
Deciding If Focus Group Interviewing Is the Right Method
25
When to Use Focus Group Interviews
26
When Not to Use FOCMS Group Interviews
27
Determining How Many Groups to Conduct
28
Balancing the Design With the Resources Available
30
SingleCategory Design
32
MultipleCategory Design
33
DoubleLayer Design
34
BroadInvolvement Design
35
Listening to Your Target Audience
36
Developing a Written Plan
38
SUMMARY
39
Developing a Questioning Route
41
Qualities of Good Questions
42
Are Easy to Say
43
Include Clear WellThoughtOut Directions
44
Moves From General to Specific
45
Opening Questions
46
Transition Questions
47
Questions That Engage Participants
49
Listing Things
50
Rating Items
51
Choosing Among Alternatives Pilot Testing Ideas
52
Picture Sort
53
Using Your Imagination
55
Doing Something Before the Focus Group
57
The Process We Use to Develop a Questioning Route
58
Step 2 Phrasing the Questions
59
Step 3 Sequencing the Questions
63
Step 4 Estimating Time for Questions
65
Step 5 Getting Feedback From Others
67
The Importance of Consistency
68
SUMMARY
69
Participants in a Focus Group
71
The Purpose Drives the Study
72
The Composition of the Group
73
The Size of a Focus Group
75
Strategies for Finding Participants
77
On Location
78
ScreeningSelection Services
79
Ads or Announcements in Newspapers and Bulletin Boards
80
Strategies for Selecting Participants
81
Use the Resources of the Sponsoring Organization in Recruiting
82
Randomly Select From Your Pool
83
Users May Differ in Ways That Can Affect the Study
84
Getting People to Attend Focus Groups
86
1 Set the Meeting Dates Times Locations
88
2 Make Personal Contacts With Potential Participants
89
3 Send a Personalized FollowUp Letter
91
Incentives to Participate
92
SUMMARY
95
Telephone Screening Questionnaire
96
FollowUp Recruitment Letter
97
Moderating Skills
99
The Moderating Team
103
Responding to Participants Comments
114
Short Verbal Responses
115
Responding to Participants Questions
116
Be Ready for the Unexpected
117
Hazardous Weather Occurs Just Hours Before the Meeting
118
The Meeting Place Is Inadequate
119
Participants Bring Other Adults
120
The Early Questions Take Too Much Time Leaving Little Time to Ask the Final Questions
121
Checklist for Focus Group Interviews
122
Responsibilities of Assistant Moderators
123
Tips on Using Money as an Incentive
125
Analyzing Focus Group Results
127
The Purpose Drives Analysis
129
Understanding Analysis
130
Setting the Stage for Analysis
131
What Gets Used as the Basis for Analysis
132
Tape Based Abridged Transcript
133
Analysis Strategies
134
Using the Computer to Help Manage the Data
139
Rapid Approach
140
Some Tips to Consider
141
Beware of Personal Bias or Preexisting Opinions About the Topic
142
You Are the Voice of the Participants
143
Transcribing Focus Groups
144
Reporting Five Principles of Reporting
147
Involve People Throughout the Study
148
Find What Helps You Write
149
Make the Report Visually Attractive
150
Eulleted Report
152
Oral Reports
153
Cite the Most Important Things First
154
Limit Your Points
155
Select the Right Reporter
156
SUMMARY
157
Styles of Focus Group Research
159
Academic Research Approach
161
PublicNonprofit Approach
164
Participatory Approach
167
SUMMARY
171
Adapting Focus Groups to Audiences and Environments
173
Focus Groups With Existing Groups and Organizations
174
Focus Group Interviews With Young People
178
Focus Groups With Ethnic or Minority Racial Groups
183
Focus Groups With International Groups and Organizations
185
SUMMARY
187
Modifications of Focus Groups
189
Two Moderators
190
Telephone Focus Groups
191
Media Focus Groups
192
SUMMARY
194
Answering Questions About the Quality of Focus Group Research
197
Is This Scientific Research?
200
How Do You Know Your Findings Arent Just Your Subjective Opinions?
201
Isnt This Soft Research?
203
Can You Generalize?
205
Why Dont You Use Random Sampling?
206
How Big Is the Sample? or How Can You Make Those Statements With Such a Small Sample?
207
References
209
Index
211
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 208 - Waterman formulated their widely followed eight principles for organizational excellence by studying 62 companies, a very small sample of the thousands of companies one might study. The validity, meaningfulness, and insights generated from qualitative inquiry have more to do with the informationrichness of the cases selected and the observational/analytical capabilities of the researcher than with sample size.

About the author (2000)

Richard Krueger is professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota. He is an internationally recognized authority on the use of focus group interviewing within the public environment. For 25 years he served as evaluation leader for the University of Minnesota Extension Service followed by 10 years teaching graduate courses in program evaluation and research methodology. He is a former president of the American Evaluation Association and a member of the Qualitative Research Consultants Association. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. In his spare time he repairs his motorcycle, swaps stories with friends, and shops for tools at the local hardware store. Maybe you’ve seen him there.

Mary Anne Casey is an evaluator, writer, and teacher. She has been an evaluation consultant at the international, national, state, and local levels on topics relating to health, public policy, community development, agriculture, and the environment. Mary Anne has had the privilege of asking questions and listening, and the challenge of providing useful, enlightening results to clients. She relishes analysis and finding just the right way to convey what people have shared. She weaves the lessons she has learned into her work, her writing on focus group interviewing, and her teaching at the University of Minnesota, University of South Florida, and University of Michigan. Mary Anne previously worked for the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the state of Minnesota. She received her PhD from the University of Minnesota. She gets her best insights while in the shower or on long walks.

Bibliographic information