## Formal Languages And Automata TheoryFundamentalsStrings, Alphabet, Language, Operations, Finite state machine, Definitions, Finite automaton model, acceptance of strings and languages, Deterministic finite automaton and non deterministic finite automaton, Transition diagrams and language recognizers.Finite AutomataNFA with Î transitions-Significance, Acceptance of languages. Conversions and Equivalence : Equivalence between NFA with and without Î transitions, NFA to DFA conversion, Minimisation of FSM, Equivalence between two FSM's, Finite Automata with output-Moore and Melay machines.Regular LanguagesRegular sets, Regular expressions, Identify rules, Constructing finite Automata for a given regular expressions, Conversion of finite automata to regular expressions. Pumping lemma of regular sets, Closure properties of regular sets.Grammar FormalismRegular grammars-right linear and left linear grammars, Equivalence between regular linear grammar and FA, Inter conversion, Context free grammar, Derivation trees, Sentential forms,Rightmost and leftmost derivation of strings.Context Free GrammarsAmbiguity in context free grammars. Minimisation of context free grammars. Chomsky normal form, Greiback normal form, Pumping lemma for context free languages. Enumeration of properties of CFL.Push Down AutomataPush down automata, Definition, Model, Acceptance of CFL, Acceptance by final state and acceptance by empty state and its equivalence. Equivalence of CFL and PDA, Interconversion. Introduction to DCFL and DPDA.Turing MachineTuring Machine, Definition, Model, Design of TM, Computable functions, Recursively enumerable languages. Church's hypothesis, Counter machine, Types of turing machines.Computability TheoryChomsky hierarchy of languages, Linear bounded automata and context sensitive language, LR(0) grammar, Decidability of problems, Universal turing machine, Undecidability of posts. Correspondence problem, Turing reducibility, Definition of P and NP problems, NP complete and NP hard problems. |

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### Contents

Table of Contents | 1-1 |

Chapter4 Grammar Formalism 4 1 to 4 38 | 1-4 |

Chapter Finite Automata 21to | 1-5 |

Turing Machine Definition Model Design of TM Computable | 1-8 |

Chapter2 Finite Automata 21 to 2 88 | 2-72 |

Chapters Context Free Grammars 5 1 to 550 | 5-1 |

Chapter4 Grammar Formalism 41 to 4 38 | 5-4 |

Chapter6 Push Down Automata 6 1 to 650 | 6-1 |

Chapter5 Context Free Grammars 51 to 5 50 | 6-5 |

Solved Examples 640 | 6-40 |

References R1 | 7-1 |

Review Questions 649 | 8-27 |

er7 Turing Machine 71 to 7 | 7 |

vi | 62 |

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### Common terms and phrases

a's and b's aabbcc ABBb algorithm binary number Chomsky's normal form closure qi computation Consider context free grammar context free language Convert the following denoted derivation tree Design deterministic finite automata DPDA e-closure equal number equivalent DFA Example final finite set following NFA given CFG given DFA given grammar HALT Hence induction infinite tape input set input string input symbol input tape language accepted linear grammar Mealy machine means Moore machine Move left Move right nodes Non-terminal NPDA null string number of a's obtain odd number output palindrome post's correspondence problem problem production rules Proof pumping lemma Push Down Automata qo,qi recursively enumerable language regular expression regular grammar regular language represented rightmost derivation Similarly simulate Solution theorem transition diagram transition table Turing machine unary undecidable unit productions useless symbols