Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate And Risk Assessment

Front Cover
Gary M. Rand
CRC Press, Oct 5, 1995 - Science - 1125 pages
This text is divided into three parts. The first part describes basic toxicological concepts and methodologies used in aquatic toxicity testing, including the philosophies underlying testing strategies now required to meet and support regulatory standards.
The second part of the book discusses various factors that affect transport, transformation, ultimate distribution, and accumulation of chemicals in the aquatic environment, along with the use of modelling to predict fate.; The final section of the book reviews types of effects or endpoints evaluated in field studies and the use of structure-activity relationships in aquatic toxicology to predict biological activity and physio-chemical properties of a chemical. This section also contains an extensive background of environmental legislation in the USA and within the European Community, and an introduction to hazard/risk assessment with case studies.
 

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Contents

CHAPTER
3
The Aquatic Environment
8
CHAPTER
15
Factors that Affect the Environmental Concentration of Chemicals
16
CHAPTER
19
Toxic Agents and Their Effects
23
Examination of ConcentrationResponse Relationships
28
USA Publishing Office Taylor Francis
29
Literature Cited
488
Terminology
494
Predictive Models and Experimental Approaches
507
Conclusions and Future Directions
515
Supplemental Reading
521
Activated Oxygen Metabolism and Oxidative Stress
538
Metal Metabolism and Toxicity
545
Summary
553

Toxicity Testing
34
Interpreting Toxicity Test Data
44
Effects Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment
49
Biomonitoring
54
The views represented in this book are solely the views of the individual authors and do not reflect those
62
Supplemental Reading
66
PART I
69
Freshwater Tests
71
General Procedures
82
Factors that Modify Toxicity
94
Saltwater Tests
103
Developing Community Tests
126
Vascular Plants
148
CHAPTER 11
153
Representative Phytotoxicity Data
158
CHAPTER 5
171
Laminaria Saccharina
180
Sea Urchin Sperm Cell Test
189
Literature Cited
204
FETAX Methodology
215
Data Analysis and Interpretation
224
Methodology
237
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
250
Literature Cited
251
Supplemental Reading
255
Simulated Field Studies
267
Conclusions
295
CHAPTER 10
307
Nonparametric Techniques
328
Methods Commonly Used for the Discrete Random Variable
335
Appendices
341
Good Laboratory Practices
345
QAQC Program Designs
360
Future Focus
368
Fish ImmunologyDefensive Responses
374
Assays and ApplicationsImmunological Methodologies
383
ImmunotoxicologyEffects of Classes of Toxicants
391
Summary Conclusions and Future Research
398
Supplemental Reading
404
Analytical Techniques
408
Potential Value of Environmental Genotoxicology
416
Fundamental Concepts in Carcinogenesis
422
Considerations in the Design of Carcinogenicity Tests Using Small Fish
431
Methodology in SmallFish Carcinogenicity Bioassays
438
Supplemental Reading
446
Introduction
449
Organic Chemicals
463
Inorganic Chemicals
471
Organometallics
487
Supplemental Reading
561
Fate Modeling
563
The Mass Balance Concept
571
An Illustrative OneCompartment Case Study
580
Supplemental Reading
586
Functional End Points
589
Screening Functional End Points for Assessment and Monitoring
599
Supplemental Reading
607
Historical Background
613
Use of QSAR Models for Estimation of Physicochemical and Biological Properties Exposure Assessment
624
Use of QSAR Models for Ecotoxicity Effects Assessment
630
Summary of QSAR Models for Ecotoxicity
642
Environmental Legislation
657
Risk Assessment under FIFRA
663
CHAPTER 22
669
The Chemical Industrys Development of Aquatic Toxicity Bioconcentration and Chemical
680
Literature Cited
698
Ecotoxicity Testing and Estimation Methods Developed under Section 5 of the Toxic
703
QSAR Development
709
CHAPTER 24
715
Emerging Activities
731
FDAs Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act
735
Pertinent NEPA Legal Issues
742
Literature Cited
762
Other OECD Chemicals Programme Activities
769
CHAPTER 27
775
Structure of the European Community with Regard to Environmental Legislation
782
Environmental Legislation in View of the Basic Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment
792
Outlook
801
Introduction to Ecological Risk Assessment for Aquatic Toxic Effects
803
Quantitative Methods of Risk Characterization
813
Supplemental Reading
816
Planning the Assessment
823
Supplemental Reading
825
Risk Assessment Approach
837
Literature Cited
855
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate LAS
859
Risk Assessment
867
Risk Assessment
870
Summary
880
CHAPTER 32
895
Exposure Assessment 894
895
Risk Evaluation
900
The Toxicity Identification Evaluation cess
918
Sediments
931
Literature Cited
936
Appendix
947
Index
1083

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