## Gas Turbines & Jet PropulsionFundamentals of gas Dynamics. Conservation of mass, Momentum and energy equations for one dimensional steady state compressible fluid flow. Sonic velocity, Mach number, Mach cone, Mach angle. Stagnation temperature, pressure and enthalpy. Isentropic flow through a passage of varying cross section. Choking in isentropic flow. Operations of nozzles under varying pressure ratios - Converging nozzles - Converging - Diverging nozzles. Adiabatic flow with frictions in constant area ducts. Fanno lines, Fanno relations for perfect gases. Concept of Rayleigh lines. Normal shock. Strength of shock wave and shocks in converging diverging nozzles.Centrifugal and axial flow compressors - Centrifugal compressor construction, flow process on T-S diagram, velocity diagram and Euler s work. Slip factor and its effect on work input. Actual work input, Dimensionless parameters of centrifugal compressors pre-whirl losses in centrifugal compressor, surging. Axial flow compressor - constructional details, velocity triangles and work done. Pressure rise and aerodynamic force in flow with the without friction. Cascade efficiency, Dimensionless parameters, losses in axial compressor stage choking flow. Stalling characteristics of centrifugal and axial flow compressor. Comparison between centrifugal and axial flow compressors. Compressor materials.Gas turbine cycles, Simple open cycle Brayton cycle Gas turbine - Thermal efficiency. Actual Brayton cycle - its thermal efficiency. Cycle air rate, work ratio optimum pressure ratio. Means of improving the efficiency and specific output. Gas turbine with reheat, inter-cooling. Regeneration. Effect of these on efficiency effect of operating variables on thermal efficiency, air rate and work ratio, water injection. Closed cycle gas turbines semi-cooling cycle gas turbine. Advantages and disadvantages of gas turbine over steam turbine and petrol and diesel engines.Impulse and reaction turbines - Introduction, A single impulse and reaction stage, Multistage machines, Velocity triangles. Work output, Blade loading and flow coefficients, Blade and stage efficiencies. Maximum utilization factor, velocity, pressure compounding reaction turbines, Blade to gas speed ratio losses and efficiencies performance graphs.Combustion systems - Introduction, combustion theory, factors affecting combustion chamber design and performance form of combustion systems. Requirement of combustion chamber process of combustion. Combustion chamber geometry mixing and dilution. Combustion chamber arrangements, Fuels for gas turbines, Flame tube cooling, Fuel injection and ignition. Fuel for gas turbine and pollution problems. Materials for gas turbines factors influencing selection of materials. Requirements for high temperature materials - Some typical materials. Blade cooling - Recent developments and typical applications.Jet propulsion cycles - Introduction, Ramjet, Pulse jet, Turbo prop - Turbojet, Turbofan engines, Scramjet. Thrust equations, specific thrusts, Thrust augmentation, Efficiencies, Parameters affecting performance ; thrust augmentation fuels for jet engines. Rocket propulsion - Introduction, classification. Chemical Rockets liquid propellants. Solid propellant, Nuclear rocket engines. Ion rocket, magneto plasma rocket engines, Solar rocket engines, staging of rockets, applications of rockets. |

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### Contents

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics 21 to 2 | 2-2 |

Centrifugal Compressors 3 1 jo 3162 | 3-1 |

Chapter 4 Axial Flow Compressors 4 1to4 48 | 4-1 |

5 38 | 5-38 |

4 | 5-57 |

Exercise 585 | 5-85 |

Chapter | 6-3 |

Chapter9 Jet Propulsion 91to956 | 6-9 |

Chapter7 Reaction Turbines 71 to 748 | 7-1 |

Chapter 10 Rocket Propulsion 101 to 1038 | 7-10 |

Chapter 8 Combustion Systems frv 81ta846 | 8-1 |

9 | 9-45 |

### Common terms and phrases

absolute velocity actual aircraft Assume axial flow compressor blade angle Brayton cycle centrifugal compressor coefficient combustion chamber combustor compression condition continuity equation cooling curve decreases degree of reaction density diameter diffuser drive the compressor efficiency of compressor enthalpy enthalpy drop equation exit expansion fixed blades fluid free vertex friction gas turbine gases Given data heat supplied Hence ignition impeller vane increase inlet and outlet intercooling isentropic efficiency isentropic process kg of air kg/s kinetic energy kj/kg of air kJ/kg-K Mach Number mass flow rate maximum moving blades nozzle open cycle output pressure loss pressure ratio pressure rise process 1-2 propulsion radial reaction stage reaction turbine regeneration reheating rotor rotor blades shown in Fig specific stagnation pressure stagnation temperature static pressure stator subsonic supersonic T-S diagram tangential thermal efficiency thrust turbojet velocity diagram velocity triangle Wnet