IPPS: The Industrial Pollution Projection System
March 1995 Most developing countries have little or no data on industrial pollution, but many of them have fairly detailed industry-survey information on employment, value added, or output. The industrial pollution projection system is designed to convert that information to a profile of the associated pollution. The World Bank's technical assistance work with new environmental protection institutions stresses cost-effective regulation, with market-based pollution control instruments implemented wherever feasible. But few environmental protection institutions can do the benefit-cost analysis needed because they lack data on industrial emissions and abatement costs. For the time being, they must use appropriate estimates. The industrial pollution projection system (IPPS) is being developed as a comprehensive response to this need for estimates. The estimation of IPPS parameters is providing a much clearer, more detailed view of the sources of industrial pollution. The IPPS has been developed to exploit the fact that industrial pollution is heavily affected by the scale of industrial activity, by its sectoral composition, and by the type of process technology used in production. Most developing countries have little or no data on industrial pollution, but many of them have relatively detailed industry-survey information on employment, value added, or output. The IPPS is designed to convert this information to a profile of associated pollutant output for countries, regions, urban areas, or proposed new projects. It operates through sectoral estimates of pollution intensity, or pollution per unit of activity. The IPPS is being developed in two phases. The first prototype has been estimated from a massive U.S. data base developed by the Bank's Policy Research Department, Environment, Infrastructure, and Agriculture Division, in collaboration with the Center for Economic Studies of the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This database was created by merging manufacturing census data with Environment Protection Agency data on air, water, and solid waste emissions. It draws on environmental, economic, and geographic information from about 200,000 U.S. factories. The IPPS covers about 1,500 product categories, all operating technologies, and hundreds of pollutants. It can project air, water, or solid waste emissions, and it incorporates a range of risk factors for human toxins and ecotoxic effects. The more ambitious second phase of IPPS development will take into account cross-country and cross-regional variations in relative prices, economic and sectoral policies, and strictness of regulation. This paper -- a product of the Environment, Infrastructure, and Agriculture Division, Policy Research Department -- is part of a larger effort in the department to study the determinants of industrial pollution as an aid to cost-effective regulation in developing countries. David Wheeler may be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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4-digit Acute Human Toxicity Air Pollution Intensity BAKERY PRODUCTS 3117 Bioaccumulative Bound Inter Chemical Chemical Name Chemical Name Metals CHEMICALS EXCEPT FERTILIZER COMPOUNDS database developing countries Digit ISIC Description ecotoxicity emissions environmental EQUIPMENT 3824 FABRICATED METAL facilities FERTILIZER 3511 Four Digit ISIC FURNITURE & FIXTURES GRAIN MILL HHED Human Toxic Intensity HYDRAZINE indices INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS industrial pollution Intensity by Medium intensity measures Inter-Quartile Mean IPPS ISIC Codes ISIC Description ISIC LEATHER FINISHING 3231 Lower Bound MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT METAL PRODUCTS 3813 oxygen PAPER & PAPERBOARD PAPERBOARD PAPERBOARD 3411 Particulates PESTICIDES 3512 PLASTICS pollution projection potency groups PULP Quartile Rank Correlation releases and transfers risk Sectoral Pollution Intensities shipment value TANNERIES AND LEATHER terrestrial ecotoxicity Total Suspended Solids total toxic Toxic Pollution Intensity Toxic Release Inventory toxicological potency TRI chemicals U.S. Census Bureau value added volatile organic compounds Water Pollution WEARING APPAREL 3220 World Bank