## Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and ComputationThis classic book on formal languages, automata theory, and computational complexity has been updated to present theoretical concepts in a concise and straightforward manner with the increase of hands-on, practical applications. This new edition comes with Gradiance, an online assessment tool developed for computer science. Gradiance is the most advanced online assessment tool developed for the computer science discipline. With its innovative underlying technology, Gradiance turns basic homework assignments and programming labs into an interactive learning experience for students. By using a series of root questions and hints, it not only tests a student's capability, but actually simulates a one-on-one teacher-student tutorial that allows for the student to more easily learn the material. Through the programming labs, instructors are capable of testing, tracking, and honing their students' skills, both in terms of syntax and semantics, with an unprecedented level of assessment never before offered. For more information about Gradiance, please visit www.aw.com/gradiance. |

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### Contents

The Methods and the Madness | 1 |

Finite Automata | 37 |

Regular Expressions and Languages | 85 |

Copyright | |

9 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

0's and l's 3SAT accepting algorithm alphabet automata binary blank boolean expression cells CFL's clause complement concatenation consider construction context-free grammar context-free languages counter machine defined deterministic DPDA e-NFA edges equivalent Example Exercises for Section Figure finite automaton given Gradiance system grammar G graph halts Hamilton circuit homomorphism hypothesis ID's inductive input symbol instance integer labeled leftmost derivation length moves MPCP multitape nodes nondeterministic Nondeterministic Finite Automata notation NP-complete number of 0's Only-if operator pair parentheses parse tree path polynomial polynomial-time polynomial-time reduction proof prove pumping lemma pushdown pushdown automaton random recursive reduction regular expression regular languages replace represent sequence set of strings simulate solution statement steps strings of 0's subset suggested by Fig Suppose tape symbols Theorem TM's transition function truth assignment Turing machine undecidable variables