Invertebrate Relationships: Patterns in Animal Evolution
This book succeeds in bringing together the previously scattered literature on invertebrate phylogeny, forming a unique introduction to this fascinating and controversial subject. Phylogenetic study is an important corner-stone of biology, for the evolutionary relationships between groups of animals bear heavily upon the analysis of their physiology, behavior and ecology. Until now, there have been few books which analyse the diversity of animal life in terms of its origins and the relationships between different groups. After reviewing the current state of the subject, the author discusses the various sources of evidence which bear upon the question of how living animals are related to each other. Then, these lines of evidence are applied to particular groups of invertebrates. The prevalence of convergent evolution is a strong theme, as it becomes clear that many features, from details of cell chemistry and structure to overall body plan and life history, have been invented repeatedly and independently under similar selection pressures. Pat Willmer has drawn upon her experience teaching invertebrate zoology to undergraduates at Cambridge and Oxford to produce a stimulating, meaningful account of the relationships between invertebrate phyla and of the phylogenetic pattern of the animal kingdom.
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acoel adult ancestor animal kingdom annelids anus appear archecoelomate arthropods assemblage bilateral blastocoel blastopore body cavity brachiopods bryozoans Cambrian cells chapter chelicerates chitin chordates ciliation classic clearly cnidarians coelom convergence crustaceans ctenophores cuticle deﬁne derived deuterostomes difﬁcult discussed early echinoderms echiurans embryo embryological enterocoelic entoprocts evidence evolution evolutionary fauna ﬁrst ﬂagellate ﬂatworms fossil functional gastraea gastrotrichs gastrulation gnathostomulids groups hemichordates homologies insects invertebrates larva layers lophophorates mesoderm metamerism metazoan origins metazoans modem modiﬁed molluscan molluscs monociliate monophyletic morphology mouth multiciliate muscle nematodes nematomorphs nemerteans occur organised organs particularly pattems perhaps phoronids phyla phylogenetic phylogeny phylum planula platyhelminths pogonophorans polyphyletic possible priapulids primitive protists protostomes pseudocoelomate radial relationships Rieger rotifers Salvini-Plawen scheme segmentation separate sequence shell shown in ﬁg similar sipunculans specialised speciﬁc sperm spiral cleavage spiralian sponges stage status structure super-phyla tentacles theories tissues trochophore turbellarians types vertebrates worms