This is a new and greatly revised edition of Professor Chandrasekhar's classic book Liquid Crystals, first published in 1977. The subject of liquid crystals has grown into an exciting interdisciplinary research field with important practical applications. This book presents a systematic and self-contained treatment of the physics of the different types of thermotropic liquid crystals - the three classical types, nematic, cholesteric and smectic, and the newly discovered discotic type. Included is a description of the structures of these four main types and their polymorphic modifications, their thermodynamical, optical and mechanical properties and their behaviour under external fields. The basic principles underlying the major applications of liquid crystals in display technology and in thermography are also discussed. This book will be of great value to advanced students and researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, materials science and technology with an interest in the physics, chemistry and applications of liquid crystals.
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A-N transition aligned angle angular anisotropy approximation assumed behaviour birefringence boundary cholesteric liquid crystal circular dichroism columnar phase components configuration Cryst curves cylinder deformation density dependence dielectric anisotropy dipole director orientation disclinations discotic distortion edge dislocations effect elastic constants electric field equations experimental film flexoelectric flow fluctuations fluid free energy Freedericksz frequency function geometry gradient helical axis hexagonal homeotropic instability interaction isotropic phase lattice layers Lett magnetic field MBBA mean field mesophase molecular molecules nematic liquid crystal nematic phase normal observed optical optical rotation order parameter orientational order parallel perpendicular phase diagram Phys pitch planar plane plates polarization reflexion reflexion band rotation sample thickness scattering shear rate shown in fig smectic solution splay structure surface symmetry temperature tensor theoretical theory threshold tilt torque tricritical point triphenylene twist variation vector velocity viscosity voltage wave wavelength wavevector X-ray