## Magnetic Circuits and TransformersElectromagnetism Review of electromagnetism, Magnetic field strength, Magnetic force.Magnetic Circuits Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Laws of magnetic circuits, Determination of ampere-turns for series and parallel magnetic circuits, Magnetic leakage and fringing, Hysteresis and eddy current losses. Electromagnetic Induction Faraday s laws, Lenz s law, Statically and dynamically induced E.M.F., Energy stored in magnetic field. Transformers Introduction, Principle of working, Construction of single phase transformer, E.M.F. equation, Phasor diagram on no load, Leakage reactance, Transformer on load, Equivalent circuit, Voltage regulation, Power and energy efficiency, Open circuit and short circuit tests, Equivalent circuit parameters estimation. Effect of saturation on exciting current, In-rush current phenomenon.Parallel operation of single phase transformer. Autotransformer Principle of operation, Comparison with two winding transformers.Three Phase Transformers Different winding connections, Voltage and current ratios, Comparative features, Effect of connections on exciting current, Parallel operation. Three winding transformer-Equivalent circuit, Off-load and on-load tap changing transformer, Scott connections. |

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### Contents

Chapter3 Electromagr | 3-1 |

Examples with Solutions 3 25 | 3-25 |

Review Questions 338 | 3-38 |

Examples with Solutions 4 | 4-76 |

Review Questions 4110 | 4-110 |

Review Questions 515 | 5-15 |

Chapter7 MMinsformers 71 to 7 | 7-1 |

### Common terms and phrases

0.8 lagging air gap ampere AT/Wb autotransformer B-H curve Calculate coil conductor core current carrying conductor delta connection eddy current efficiency electromagnet electromagnetic induction equivalent circuit Example flux density flux produced H.V. side Hence high voltage hysteresis loss impedance induced e.m.f. iron losses Key Point kVA load kVA rating Lenz's law line current line voltage lines of force load current low voltage magnetic circuit magnetic field strength magnetic material main transformer maximum mutual inductance number of turns output phase voltage phasor diagram pole power factor primary and secondary primary side primary winding reactance referred to primary referred to secondary relative permeability reluctance S.C. test secondary side secondary voltage secondary winding short circuit shown single phase transformer solenoid Solution supply tap changer tap changing teaser transformer three phase transformer Transformation ratio voltage drop voltage regulation voltage side volts zero