Molecular Marker Systems in Plant Breeding and Crop Improvement

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 2005 - Science - 476 pages
2 Reviews

Successful release of new and better crop varieties increasingly requires genomics and molecular biology. This volume presents basic information on plant molecular marker techniques from marker location up to gene cloning. The text includes a description of technical approaches in genome analysis such as comparison of marker systems, positional cloning, and array techniques in 19 crop plants. A special section focuses on converting this knowledge into general and specific breeding strategies, particularly in relation to biotic stress. Theory and practice of marker assisted selection for QTL, gene pyramiding and the future of MAS are summarized and discussed for maize, wheat, and soybean. Furthermore, approaches in silviculture on the examples of Fagus, Populus, Eucalyptus, Picea and Abies are presented. The volume ends with a comprehensive review of the patents relevant for using molecular markers and marker assisted selection.

 

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Contents

Identification and Application of Molecular Markers
3
2 Status
4
3 Molecular Markers
5
4 Identifying MarkerTrait Associations
6
5 Application of Molecular Markers
12
6 Directions
17
7 Conclusions
20
From Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
23
5 Conclusions
238
References
239
Markers as a Tool for Breeding
245
2 Conventional Markers
246
4 Molecular Markers Currently Used in Rice Breeding
247
5 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis in Rice
248
7 Transposable Elements as Markers for Major Genes
250
Quantitative Trait Loci and Future Prospects
251

3 Microsatellites
25
5 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms
26
6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
28
7 Conclusions
33
References
34
Molecular Markers in Rice
39
2 Gene Mapping with Molecular Markers in Rice
41
3 Positional Cloning
42
4 ArrayBased Markers
45
5 Candidate Genes as Markers
47
6 Conclusions
48
References
49
MapBased Cloning
55
2 Outline of the General MapBased Cloning Strategy
56
3 MapBased Cloning in a Model Species with a Fully Sequenced Genome Arabidopsis thaliana
70
4 MapBased Cloning in Crop Species
76
5 Conclusions
80
References
81
Specific Crops
87
Use of Genetic Information from Arabidopsis and Development of Sequence Tagged Site Markers
89
2 Characterization of DNA Markers in Brassica
90
3 Application of Arabidopsis Genome Information to Brassica DNA Markers
96
4 Developing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNASequence Tagged Site Markers Linked to the RadishDerived Fertility Restoration Rf Locus in B ...
97
5 Conclusions
100
References
101
Example Sunflower Breeding
107
3 Quantitative Trait Loci Identification
111
Towards Genes and Functions
114
5 Conclusions
116
Mapping in Sugar Beet
121
3 Repetitive DNA Classes
126
4 Genetic Relationships Between Species of the Genus Beta
128
5 Genetic Mapping of Mendelian Traits
129
6 Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci
132
7 Conclusions
133
Improvement of Alfalfa Medicago sativa L
139
2 Characterization of Alfalfa Germplasms
140
3 Development of Genetic Maps and Identification of Regions Affecting Traits of Interest
142
4 Additional Uses of Molecular Markers in Alfalfa Breeding
148
5 Conclusions
149
References
150
The Example Pea Pisum sativum L
155
2 The Pisum Genetic Map and Loci for Agronomic Characters
156
3 Resistance to Powdery Mildew Erysiphe pisi Syd
158
Fusarium oxysporum f sp pisi van Hall Snyd Hans
159
6 Flowering Genetics
161
7 Quantitative Trait Loci
162
8 Conclusions
166
Understanding and Using Gene Pools
171
3 Linkage Maps
174
4 Synteny
176
5 Gene Mapping
178
6 Transformation Systems
181
7 Conclusions
183
Development and Use in Pepper Capsicum spp
189
2 Molecular Markers
190
4 Variety Identification and Hybrid Purity
191
5 Genetic Maps
192
6 Map Position and Markers of Loci Governing Traits of Interest
198
7 Genomic Resources
206
8 MarkerAssisted Selection
208
9 Conclusion
209
References
210
Molecular Maps and More
215
2 Reference Molecular Maps of Potato
216
4 Potato Function Map for Pathogen Resistance
218
5 Potato Function Map for Tuber Traits
221
6 Potato Function Maps as Basis for Innovative Approaches to Breeding
223
7 Conclusions
224
A Resource for Intra and Interspecific Genomics
229
2 Molecular Markers
230
4 Comparative Mapping and Synteny
236
References
252
Potential and Implications
255
3 The Bridge to Practical Applications
257
5 Analysis of Genetic Diversity
261
References
262
The Group of Conifers
267
2 Conifer Genomes
268
3 Loblolly Pine Reference Genetic Map
269
5 Comparative Mapping in Pinus
270
6 Comparative Mapping in Pinaceae
273
Needs of Linking the Genetic Map to Chromosomes
275
Improvement of Peach
279
2 Use of Molecular Markers for Fruit Quality Improvement
285
3 Use of Molecular Markers for Disease Resistance
289
4 MarkerAssisted Selection for Tree Architecture Characters
291
5 Synteny Among Prunus Species
292
6 Development of Peach Molecular Markers and Their Use for Fingerprinting and for the Evaluation of Genetic Resources
296
7 Conclusions
297
Breeding Strategies and Silviculture Based on Markers
303
MarkerAssisted Selection
305
3 Present Status of Validated Molecular Markers for Molecular Breeding of Important Crops
307
5 MarkerAssisted Selection in Gene Pyramiding
310
6 MarkerAssisted Selection in Backcross Breeding
311
7 Conclusions
313
Optimum Design of MarkerAssisted Backcross Programs
319
3 Introgression of a Recessive Gene
327
4 Introgression of Two Dominant Genes
330
5 Length of the Intact Donor Chromosome Segment Around the Target Gene
331
References
333
MarkerAssisted Selection in Maize
335
2 Practical Examples of MarkerAssisted Selection
342
3 Economics of MarkerAssisted Selection
348
4 New MarkerAssisted Selection Strategies
349
References
350
The Example Wheat
353
2 Development of Molecular Markers
354
3 Use of Molecular Markers in MarkerAssisted Selection for Disease Resistance
362
4 Conclusions
363
References
364
Soybean Improvement
371
2 Choice of Markers
373
3 Identification of Polymorphism
378
5 MarkerAssisted Selection in Recurrent CrossPopulations
379
7 Methods for MarkerAssisted Selection
380
8 Conclusions
382
References
383
The Example of Fagus
387
2 Development and Evaluation of Microsatellite Markers in Fagus
388
3 Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure Within Forests by Microsatellite Markers
390
4 Genetic Management of Fagus Forests for Conservation and Sustainable Use
393
5 Conclusions
395
Characterisation and Use in Eucalyptus
399
2 Base Population Characterisation Eucalyptus globulus is Geographically Structured with Chloroplast Haplotypes Coincident with Quantitative Gene...
400
3 Effect of Utilisation on the Base Population Resource Influence of Silvicultural and Harvesting on Eucalyptus sieberi Genetic Diversity
401
4 Defining the Gene Pool for Breeding Hybridisation
402
5 Direct Measures of Gene Flow Implications for Orchard Design
403
6 Genetic Architecture of Commercial Traits Quantitative Trait Loci and Candidate Gene Mapping
405
References
409
Case Studies in Abies Picea and Populus
413
2 Which DNA Marker at Which Scale and for Which Purpose?
415
3 Case Studies with Fir Abies sp Norway Spruce Picea abies Karst L and Poplar Populus sp
417
4 Conclusions
425
References
426
Legal Aspects
431
IV1 Intellectual Property Rights in the Field of Molecular Marker Analysis
433
2 What Is a Patent?
434
4 The Selection of Micro satellite Primers and the PCR Reaction
436
5 Analysis of PCR Products
437
7 Conclusions
438
References
471
Subject Index
473
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