Multimedia Systems

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 11, 2004 - Computers - 466 pages
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Multimedia Systems discusses the basic characteristics of multimedia operating systems, networking and communication, and multimedia middleware systems. The overall goal of the book is to provide a broad understanding of multimedia systems and applications in an integrated manner: a multimedia application and its user interface must be developed in an integrated fashion with underlying multimedia middleware, operating systems, networks, security, and multimedia devices.

Fundamental characteristics of multimedia operating and distributed communication systems are presented, especially scheduling algorithms and other OS supporting approaches for multimedia applications with soft-real-time deadlines, multimedia file systems and servers with their decision algorithms for data placement, scheduling and buffer management, multimedia communication, transport, and streaming protocols, services with their error control, congestion control and other Quality of Service aware and adaptive algorithms, synchronization services with their skew control methods, and group communication with their group coordinating algorithms and other distributed services.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 Interdisciplinary Aspects of Multimedia
2
12 Contents of This Book
4
131 Quality of Service
5
132 Multimedia Operating Systems
6
14 Further Reading About Multimedia
7
Quality of Service
9
21 Requirements and Constraint
10
522 Gigabit Ethernet
191
523 Token Ring
192
524 100VG AnyLAN
199
525 Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDDI
201
526 ATM Networks
210
53 Metropolitan Area Networks MANs
218
531 Distributed Queue Dual Bus DQDB
219
532 Orwell
223

212 Deadlines
11
214 Realtime Requirements on Multimedia Systems
13
215 Service and Protocol Requirements
14
216 Processing and Communication Constraints
15
22 Quality of Service Concepts
16
222 Service Objects
17
223 QoS Specification
18
224 QoS Parameter Values and Service Classes
22
225 QualityAware Service Model
24
23 Resources
25
231 Resource Management
26
232 Requirements on Resource Management
28
233 Model for Continuous Streams
29
24 Establishment Phase
34
242 QoS Translation
40
243 QoS Scaling
43
244 QoS Routing
45
245 Admission Control
50
246 Reservation
52
25 Runtime Phase of Multimedia Call
58
251 Traffic Shaping
59
252 Rate Control
62
253 Error Control
65
254 QoS and Resource Monitoring
69
255 QoS Renegotiation and Adaptation
70
26 QoS Management Architectures
74
27 Closing Remarks
76
Multimedia Operating Systems
77
31 Process Management
78
311 RealTime Processing Requirements
79
312 Traditional RealTime Scheduling
80
System Model
81
314 SoftRealTime Scheduling Concepts
83
315 Scheduling Policies
94
Case Studies
103
32 Interprocess Communication and Synchronization
108
33 Memory Management
109
331 Reservation Concept for Memory Management
110
332 Buffer Management Techniques
111
333 Buffer Management for ClientServer Systems
113
34 Device Management
116
35 System Architecture
119
351 UNIXbased Systems
122
352 QuickTime
123
353 Windows Multimedia Extensions
125
354 OS2 Multimedia Presentation Manager2
127
36 Concluding Remarks
129
Media Server
131
41 Architecture
132
42 Storage Devices
135
422 Zone Bit Recording
137
423 File Structure
139
43 Disk Controller
140
432 Reorganization
146
44 Storage Management
148
441 Disk Management
149
442 Traditional Disk Scheduling
151
443 Multimedia Disk Scheduling
155
444 Admission Control
163
445 Replication
165
446 Supporting Heterogeneous Disks
168
45 File Systems
170
452 Multimedia File Systems
173
453 Example Multimedia File Systems
174
46 Memory Management
180
461 Interval Caching Policy
181
465 Content Insertion
182
Networks
183
511 Requirements to Services and Protocols
184
512 The Layers of the ISOOSI Model
185
52 Networks
188
521 Ethernet
189
533 MAN Connection to ATM Networks
224
54 Wide Area Networks WANs
225
541 Traditional WANs
226
542 BISDN over ATM
228
55 Closing Remarks
239
Communication
241
611 User and Application Requirements
242
62 Traditional Network Protocols and Their Support for Multimedia
244
622 Internet Protocol Version 6 IPv6
247
623 Multicast Support
252
63 Traditional Transport Protocols and Their Support of Multimedia
258
632 User Datagram Protocol UDP
263
64 New Protocols for Support of Network Quality of Service
264
641 Reservation Concept
265
642 Early Reservationbased Protocols
266
643 Internet Integrated Services
267
644 Resource Reservation Protocol
268
645 Alternative Reservation Approaches
271
646 Internet Differentiated Services
272
65 New Protocols for Transport of Multimedia
273
652 Realtime Transport Protocol RTP
275
653 Handling of Heterogeneous Requirements in Multicast Scenarios
282
654 Reliable Multicast Transmission
285
66 Closing Remarks
286
Group Communication
289
711 Dimensions of CSCW
290
72 Architecture
292
721 Establishing Communication Relationships Group Rendezvous
293
73 Joint Use of Applications
294
731 Conferences
297
732 Conference Control
298
74 Session Management
301
742 Session Control
303
75 Internet Protocols and their Use in MBone
305
752 MBone Applications
309
753 Cooperation of Protocols in an MBone Session
316
76 Closing Remarks
317
Synchronization
319
811 Intra and Interobject Synchronization
322
812 Timedependent Presentation Units
323
82 Particularities of Synchronization in Multimedia Systems
327
822 Requirements to Lip Synchronization
332
823 Requirements to Pointer Synchronization
336
824 Elementary Media Synchronization
339
825 Analysis of Existing Synchronization Mechanisms
343
83 Requirements to the Presentation
345
851 Live SynchronizationOverview
346
854 Synthetic Synchronization
349
86 System Components Involved in Synchronization
351
87 A Reference Model for Multimedia Synchronization
353
872 The Synchronization Reference Model
354
873 Synchronization in a Distributed Environment
359
874 Characteristics of the Synchronization Reference Model
364
88 Sychronization Specification
366
89 Specification Methods for Multimedia Synchronization
370
892 Axisbased Synchronization
373
893 Controlflowbased Specification
376
894 Eventsbased Synchronization
382
895 Scripts
383
896 Summary of Synchronization Specification Methods
385
8102 HyTime
388
8103 The Firefly System
390
8104 The MODE System
393
8105 Multimedia TeleOrchestra
397
8106 Littles Framework
398
8107 ACME
400
8108 Other Synchronizationspecific Systems
402
811 Summary and Discussion
403
Bibliography
405
Index
445
Copyright

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Page 442 - M. Weiser, B. Welch, A. Demers, and S. Shenker. Scheduling for Reduced CPU Energy.
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About the author (2004)

Prof. Ralf Steinmetz worked for over nine years in industrial research and development of distributed multimedia systems and applications. Since 1996 he is the head of the Multimedia Communications Lab at Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany. From 1997 to 2001 he directed the Fraunhofer (former GMD) Integrated Publishing Systems Institute IPSI in Darmstadt. In 1999 he founded the Hessian Telemedia Technology Competence Center (httc e.V.).

His thematic focus in research and teaching is on multimedia communications with his vision of real "seamless multimedia communications". With over 200 refereed publications he has become ICCC Governor in 1999; was awarded the ranking of Fellow of both, the IEEE in 1999 and the ACM in 2002.

Prof. Klara Nahrstedt is currently an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Over the last ten years she has been working on various research problems in the area of Quality of Service provisioning for real-time multimedia processing and communication systems and published over 100 papers in leading conferences and journals. She is the editor-in-chief of the ACM/Springer Multimedia Journal, as well as she has served on the editorial board of IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Computer Networks Journal, Journal on Multimedia Applications and Tools, and ACM Computer Communication Review Journal.

For her research results she was awarded the Early NSF Career Award, the Junior Xerox Award, IEEE Communication Society Leonard Abraham Award for Research Achievements, and the Ralph and Catherine Fisher Professorship Chair.