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Chemistry of groundwater
Physical chemistry of aqueous solutions
9 other sections not shown
acid activity alkalinity analysis aquifer areas Ca2+ calcite calcium calculated carbon dioxide carbonate cations cent Chalk changes charge chemical chemistry chloride clay composition concentration conductivity constant contains corrosion described determined diagram diffusion discussed dissolution dissolved distribution effects electrode elements equation equilibrium example exchange Fe2+ flow given groundwater hardness HCO3 hydrochemical hydrogen important increases indicate interpretation ion exchange iron isotope limited major measured metal methods Mg2+ minerals mixing natural NBS NBS normally occur origin oxidation oxygen parameters Pleistocene possible potential precipitation present problems processes produce ratio reaction recharge reduced reference represented result saline saline groundwaters sample saturation seawater shown shown in Fig shows significant sodium soil solids solution species stable standard studies surface Table temperature thousand tion tritium units usually values zone