This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical interconnects, many stumbling blocks need to be addressed such as thin-film transmitter and detector, thermal management, process compatibility, reliability, cost effective fabrication process, and easy integration. The material presented eventually will relieve such concerns and make the integration of optical interconnection highly feasible. The hybrid integration of the optical interconnection layer and electrical layers is ongoing.
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12 Overview of Optical Interconnects
13 Fully Embedded Board Level Optical Interconnects
14 Chapter Organization
Thinned Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Fabrication
23 Fabrication of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
231 Device Isolation
232 Selective Wet Oxidation for Current Aperture
522 Fabrication of the 45 Micromirror Coupler
53 Soft Molding
532 Master and Mold Fabrication
533 Deformation Compensation
54 Propagation Loss Measurement
63 Hybrid integration of Oil and Printed Circuit Board
233 Metallization and Thinning
32 HighSpeed Modulation Characteristics
33 Thermal Resistance
Thermal Management of Embedded VCSEL
Optical Interconnection Layer
521 Coupling Efficiency Calculation
Effects of ThermalVia Structures on Thin Film VCSELs for a Fully Embedded BoardLevel Optical Interconnection System
82 Fabrication of a Thin Film VCSEL and Measurement of Thermal Resistance Rth
83 Numerical Modeling of SelfHeating Effect for a Thin Film VCSEL
84 ThermalVia Structures for the Fully Embedded Thin Film VCSEL
Other editions - View all
active region AlxGaAs board level optical characteristics circuit board copper foil coupling efficiency current aperture device diameter difﬁculty electrical layers electroplated embedded board level embedded VCSEL epitaxial epitaxial layers etch stop layer etchant fabrication process ﬁber FIGURE ﬂexible waveguide ﬁlm ﬂow fully embedded board fully embedded board-level function GaAs Gaussian beam heat sink inside the VCSEL integration joule heating laminating laser drilled Lett level optical interconnects material measured micro-via microtome mirror surface modulation molding process nm thick optical interconnection layer optical layer optical waveguide Optowell packaging PDMS photoresist polymer printed circuit board pulse width reﬂectance refractive index shown in Fig signal silicon simulation results spin coat substrate substrate thickness surface emitting laser Temperature distributions thermal conductive thermal conductive paste thermal management thermal resistance thermal-via structures thick VCSEL thin ﬁlm VCSEL thin-ﬁlm Ticona Topas ﬁlm various thick VCSELs VCSEL array wafer waveguide mirror wavelength wavelength shift
Page 1 - The speed and complexity of integrated circuits are increased rapidly as integrated circuit technology advances from very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits to ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits. As the number of components per chip, the number of chips per board, the modulation speed and the degree of integration continue to increase, electrical interconnects are facing their fundamental bottlenecks, such as speed, packaging, fanout, and power dissipation. Multichip module (MCM) technology...
Page 1 - ... integrated circuit technology advances from very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits to ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits. As the number of devices per chip, the number of chips per board, the modulation speed, and the degree of integration continue to increase, electrical interconnects are facing their fundamental bottlenecks, such as speed, packaging, fan-out, and power dissipation. In the quest for...
Page 90 - Sandia is a multiprogram lab operated by Sandia Corporation for the US Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. References  KD Choquette and KM Geib, "Fabrication and Performance of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers", Chap. 5 in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, ed.
Page 90 - The mechanism of anisotropic, electrochemical silicon etching in alkaline solutions," IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, 1990, p.
Page 90 - Van der Waals Bonding of GaAs on Pd Leads to a Permanent, Solid-Phase-Topotaxial Metallurgical Bond.