Optical Interconnects

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Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2007 - Science - 91 pages
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This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical interconnects, many stumbling blocks need to be addressed such as thin-film transmitter and detector, thermal management, process compatibility, reliability, cost effective fabrication process, and easy integration. The material presented eventually will relieve such concerns and make the integration of optical interconnection highly feasible. The hybrid integration of the optical interconnection layer and electrical layers is ongoing.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Overview of Optical Interconnects
3
13 Fully Embedded Board Level Optical Interconnects
6
14 Chapter Organization
7
Thinned Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Fabrication
9
23 Fabrication of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
12
231 Device Isolation
13
232 Selective Wet Oxidation for Current Aperture
16
522 Fabrication of the 45 Micromirror Coupler
44
53 Soft Molding
47
532 Master and Mold Fabrication
50
533 Deformation Compensation
54
54 Propagation Loss Measurement
58
System Integration
65
63 Hybrid integration of Oil and Printed Circuit Board
70
Summary
73

233 Metallization and Thinning
17
VCSEL Characterization
23
32 HighSpeed Modulation Characteristics
26
33 Thermal Resistance
29
Thermal Management of Embedded VCSEL
31
Optical Interconnection Layer
39
521 Coupling Efficiency Calculation
40
Effects of ThermalVia Structures on Thin Film VCSELs for a Fully Embedded BoardLevel Optical Interconnection System
75
82 Fabrication of a Thin Film VCSEL and Measurement of Thermal Resistance Rth
77
83 Numerical Modeling of SelfHeating Effect for a Thin Film VCSEL
80
84 ThermalVia Structures for the Fully Embedded Thin Film VCSEL
83
85 Conclusion
84
86 Acknowledgements
85
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Page 1 - The speed and complexity of integrated circuits are increased rapidly as integrated circuit technology advances from very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits to ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits. As the number of components per chip, the number of chips per board, the modulation speed and the degree of integration continue to increase, electrical interconnects are facing their fundamental bottlenecks, such as speed, packaging, fanout, and power dissipation. Multichip module (MCM) technology...
Page 1 - ... integrated circuit technology advances from very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits to ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits. As the number of devices per chip, the number of chips per board, the modulation speed, and the degree of integration continue to increase, electrical interconnects are facing their fundamental bottlenecks, such as speed, packaging, fan-out, and power dissipation. In the quest for...
Page 90 - Sandia is a multiprogram lab operated by Sandia Corporation for the US Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. References [1] KD Choquette and KM Geib, "Fabrication and Performance of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers", Chap. 5 in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, ed.
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Page 1 - The employment of copper and materials with lower dielectric constant materials can release the bottleneck in a chip level for the next several years. The ITRS expects on chip local clock speed will constantly increase to 10 GHz by year 2011.

About the author (2007)

University of Texas at Austin

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