Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks
Design of Water Distribution Network is traditionally based on trial-and-approach in which the designer assumes, based on experience and judgment, sizes of different elements and successively modifies them until a network with satisfactory hydraulic performance is obtained.
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Concept and Assessment
Reliability Based Design
alternatives analysis approach Bhave branched network concave function consider convex cost function critical node critical path critical path method curve D-specified condition decision variables decrease demand nodes design period dynamic programming end nodes energy charges equations example feasible region flow distribution fN fN formulation given gives gradient gravity network head loss constraints increase initial intermediate nodes iterative procedure linear programming link diameters local minimum looped network maximum method minimum required HGL minimum spanning tree network cost network of Ex nodal demands nodal HGL values nonlinear objective function optimal design optimal layout optimal solution optimization problem optimization procedure Pareto optimal path concept path head loss pipe diameter present worth primary links pumping main ratio respectively satisfied secondary links selected serial network shown in Fig slack variables Sonak source node Steiner points Steiner tree total cost unit cost valves water distribution networks