Plant Physiology

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Hans Mohr, Peter Schopfer
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 23, 1995 - Science - 629 pages
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In this comprehensive and stimulating text and reference, the authors have succeeded in combining experimental data with current hypotheses and theories to explain the complex physiological functions of plants. For every student, teacher and researcher in the plant sciences it offers a solid basis for an in-depth understanding of the entire subject area, underpinning up-to-date research in plant physiology. The authors vividly explain current research by references to experiments, they cite original literature in figures and tables, and, at the end of each chapter, list recent references that are relevant for a deeper analysis of the topic. In addition, an abundance of detailed and informative illustrations complement the text.
 

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Contents

Setting the Aims in Physiology
1
Limitations of Reductionism
2
Laws in Biology
3
System Theory
4
Important Concepts
5
Further Reading
6
Theoretical Basis of Physiology
7
The Principle of Causality in Physiology
8
Further Reading
274
Biosynthetic Metabolism
275
Shikimate Pathway
281
Biogenesis of Chlorophyll
282
Further Reading
284
Physiology of Development
285
Growth
293
Differentiation
301

Multifactor Analysis
9
The Problem of Complexity
11
Formulation of Laws
14
Characters and Variability
16
Presentation of Data
18
The Problem of Extrapolation
19
The Cell as a Morphological System
21
The Mature Plant Cell
31
The Woody Plant Cell
34
Further Reading
37
The Cell as an Energetic System
39
The Cell as an Open System Dynamic Equilibrium
41
Chemical Potential
42
Chemical Potential of Water
43
Concept of Water Potential in the Water Relations of Cells
45
Chemical Potential of Ions
51
Membrane Potential
52
Energetics of Biochemical Reactions
54
Phosphate Transfer and Phosphorylation Potential
57
Further Reading
62
The Cell as a Metabolic System
63
Metabolic Compartmentation of the Cell
68
Transport Mechanisms in Biomembranes
69
ATP Synthesis by EnergyTransforming Biomembranes
73
Uptake of Materials by the Cell Ion Uptake
75
Principles of Metabolic Regulation
81
Further Reading
85
The Cell as a Dividing System
87
Regulation of the Rate of Mitosis
90
Determination of the Division Plane
91
Cell Cycle and Cell Differentiation
92
The Cell as a Polar System
93
Significance of Cell Polarity
94
Induction of Polarity by Light
95
Polarity and the Bioelectrical Field
96
Polarity and Signalling Substances
97
The Cell as a Growing System
99
Growth and CellWall Structure
101
Extension Growth of Multicellular Organs
106
Regulation of Extension Growth
108
Further Reading
109
The Cell as an Oscillatory System
111
Further Selected Phenomena Illustrating Circadian Rhythms
112
Selected Experiments to Analyse Endogenous Rhythms
116
Endogenous Rhythm as a System Characteristic
119
Further Reading
120
The Cell as a GenePhysiological System
121
RNA of the Cell
124
Protein Synthesis
126
Specific Inhibitors
127
Folding and Assembly of Proteins
128
Sorting Proteins
129
Further Reading
132
Intracellular Morphogenesis
133
Morphogenesis of Mitochondria
136
Morphogenesis of Plastids
138
Morphogenesis of Peroxisomes Microbodies
144
Further Reading
147
Photosynthesis as a Chloroplast Function
149
Energy Conversion in the Chloroplast
152
Pigment Systems of Red and BlueGreen Algae
166
Photosynthetic Electron Transport
168
Protection Mechanisms Against PhotoOxidative Destruction of the Photosynthetic Apparatus
173
Mechanism of Photophosphorylation
175
Biochemical Processes
176
Anoxygenic Photosynthesis of Phototrophic Bacteria
184
Further Reading
185
Respiratory Metabolism
187
Respiratory Metabolism of Carbohydrates
188
Photorespiration
198
Mobilisation of Storage Material in Storage Tissues
203
Regulation of Respiratory Gas Exchange
210
Regulatory Interaction Between Synthesis and Breakdown of Carbohydrates
222
Further Reading
223
The Leaf as a Photosynthetic System
225
Measurement of the Rate of Photosynthesis
226
Gross and Net Photosynthesis
227
Limiting Factors of Net Photosynthesis
229
Ability of Leaves to Adapt Photosynthetically
232
Temperature Dependence of Net Photosynthesis
234
Influence of Oxygen on Net Photosynthesis
236
Regulation of CO₂ Exchange by Stomata
237
Further Reading
243
C₄ Plants and CAM Plants
245
C₄ Dicarboxylate Cycle
249
Ecological Aspects of the C₄ Syndrome
251
CAM an Alternative to C₄ Photosynthesis
253
Isotope Discrimination During CO₂ Fixation
256
Further Reading
257
Metabolism of Water and Inorganic Ions
259
Mineral Nutrition of Plants
261
Essential Microelements
262
Function of Nutrient Elements in Metabolism
263
Salt Excretion in Halophytes
265
Sequestration of Heavy Metals by Phytochelatin
266
Further Reading
267
Ecological Cycles of Materials and Energy
269
Nitrogen Cycle
271
Energy Flow
273
Pattern Formation and Morphogenesis
310
Tumour Formation in Plants
321
Morphogenesis of Acetabularia
324
Further Reading
330
Physiology of Sexuality
333
Fertilisation in Flowering Plants
340
Maternal and Paternal Inheritance
343
Photomorphogenesis
345
Pigments
346
Phytochrome
347
Mode of Action of Phytochrome in Photomorphogenesis
352
Four Case Studies on the Effects of Phytochrome
356
Cooperation Between Photosensors
364
Synthesis of Flavone Glycosides in Cell Suspension Cultures
367
Photomorphogenesis of Fungi
368
Further Reading
373
Development of Chloroplasts
375
Formation of Holocomplexes
376
Regulation of Matrix Enzymes
378
The Plastid Factor
379
Further Reading
381
Physiology of Hormone Action
383
Overview of the Structure and Function of Phytohormones
386
Six Case Studies of the Physiology of Hormone Action
399
Further Reading
408
Ripening and Germination of Reproductive and Distributive Organs
409
Germination of Ripened Seeds
412
Regulation of Gene Expression During Embryo Development
418
Regulation of Fruit Development by the Seed
419
Further Reading
422
Flower Formation and Photo and Thermoperiodism
423
Flower Formation and Florigen
424
Photoperiodism
426
Grafting Experiments and Florigen
428
Flower Formation and Gibberellin
430
Phytochrome and Photoperiodism
431
Photoperiodism and Circadian Rhythm
432
Significance of Photoperiodism
434
Vernalisation
435
Further Reading
436
Physiology of Senescence
437
Aging of Leaves in Perennial Plants
438
Further Reading
442
Physiology of Regeneration and Transplantation
443
Tissue Cultures
445
Parasexual Hybridisation
450
Wound Healing
452
Cooperation of Several Factors During Regeneration
453
Regeneration Experiments with Flower Formation
454
Transplantation
455
Chimaeras
456
Further Reading
458
Effects of Ionising Radiation
459
Some Thoughts on the Target Theory
461
Effect of Ionising Radiation on Cell Components
462
Repair of Radiation Damage in DNA
463
Effect of Ionising Radiation on Higher Level Organisation in Cells
464
Further Reading
466
Physiology of Xylem Transport
467
Root System and Root Hairs
469
Nitrogen in the Xylem Sap
471
Transpiration and Ion Supply
473
Pathways
474
Classical Experiments
476
Transpiration
478
Analogue Model for Water Transport in a Plant
482
Distribution of Water Potential in a Tree
484
Guttation and Root Pressure
485
Further Reading
486
Physiology of Phloem Transport
487
Pathways
489
Transport Molecules
491
Mechanism of Sieve Tube Transport
492
Further Reading
495
Physiology of Movement
497
Phototropism
504
Gravitropism
516
Further Processes of Movement Growth of Pollen Tubes
524
Further Reading
537
Physiology of Stress Resistance
539
Water Stress
540
Temperature Stress
544
Light and UV Stress
551
Biogenic Stress Plant Diseases
558
Further Reading
565
Physiology of Crop Production
567
Formation of Storage Material
570
Production Factors
571
Nitrogen
573
Herbicides
579
Synthetic Growth Retardants
583
Improvement of Hereditary Factors
584
Gene Technology
586
Antibody Production in Plants
588
Further Reading
589
Physical Quantities Units Conversion Factors and Constants
591
References
595
Subject Index
603
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About the author (1995)

Geboren 1930, Studium von Physik und Biologie (und Philosophie), seit 1960 Professor fA1/4r Biologie in Freiburg, von 1991 bis zur Emeritierung Direktor der Akademie fA1/4r TechnikfolgenabschAtzung in Stuttgart. Seit 1992 Mitglied im PrAsidium der Leopoldina.

Schopfer-Professor at the Biological Institute of the University of Freiburg, Germany

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