Snack Foods Processing

Front Cover
Edmund W. Lusas, Lloyd W. Rooney
CRC Press, Jun 5, 2001 - Technology & Engineering - 639 pages
1 Review
Providing a clear, comprehensive overview of the industry, Snack Foods Processing is the definitive handbook on developing, preparing, and processing shelf-stable savory snack foods. Contributors from leading companies and academic institutions provide practical information and guidance based on years of industry experience. Collectively, they review the principles and critical specifics of processing savory snacks, starting from raw materials selection and care, through types of equipment used and its proper operation, to product seasoning, and packaging.

The book covers every major product type, including potato and corn chips, alkali-cooked corn tortilla chips, pretzels, popcorn, extruder puffed and baked/fried products, half-products, meat snacks, and rice-based snacks. It also discusses international snack foods, including those of China, India, and Japan. It details post shaping and drying operations, covering seasonings, flavorings application, product protection and packaging materials, and filling and cartoning equipment.

Whether you are new to the field or you are a pro facing broader responsibilities, Snack Foods Processing provides valuable information gained through first-hand experience. It presents a clear introduction to the snack foods industry and its terminology and explains the technical interrelationships between the many materials and processes used in making the finished snack food. New entrants into the field will be able to confidently communicate with suppliers and associates. Managers and quality control personnel will gain a better idea of where to start in solving problems when they arise.
 

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Snack Foods Processing

Contents

Overview
3
2 PAST INNOVATIONS
8
3 NUTRITION
12
4 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY
15
5 REFERENCES
27
The Snack Industry History Domestic and Global Status
29
3 THE DOMESTIC SNACK FOOD MARKET
33
4 THE GLOBAL MARKET
34
4 SOFTWARE CONDITIONS
341
5 EXTRUDED PRODUCTS
352
FUTURE OF SNACK FOODS EXTRUSION
365
7 REFERENCES
367
Perfect Pretzel Production
369
3 FORMULATION
371
4 PROCESSING
373
5 PROBLEMS IN PRETZEL MANUFACTURE
382

6 REFERENCES
35
INGREDIENTS AND GENERAL EQUIPMENT
37
Food Quality of Corn
39
2 TYPES OF CORN
40
3 CORN GRADES STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
43
4 CORN KERNEL STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION
45
5 AFLATOXINS AND FUMONISIN
47
6 GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS GMOS
48
7 FOOD CORN QUALITY ATTRIBUTES
49
8 PROPERTIES OF CORN FOR ALKALINE COOKING
58
9 HANDLING FOOD CORN
60
10 INDUSTRIAL DRY CORN MILLING
61
11 DRY MASA FROM DRYMILLED CORN FRACTIONS
67
12 SORGHUM UTILIZATION IN SNACK FOODS
68
13 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
69
AlkalineCooked Corn Products
73
3 INGREDIENTS
75
4 PREPARING AND USING FRESH MASA
78
5 BAKED AND REDUCEDFAT PRODUCTS
87
6 PREPARING AND USING DRY MASA FLOURS
88
7 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ALKALINECOOKED PRODUCTS
93
8 QUALITY OF ALKALINECOOKED PRODUCTS
106
9 SHELF LIFE OF CORN PRODUCTS
110
11 REFERENCES
111
Starches for Snack Foods
115
2 STARCH GRANULES
116
3 DEFINITIONS
122
4 CHANGES IN STARCH
124
5 STARCH INGREDIENTS FOR SAVORY SNACK FOODS
130
6 SELECTION OF STARCHES
135
9 REFERENCES
136
Oils and Industrial Frying
137
2 WORLD OIL SUPPLY
138
3 OIL CHEMISTRY
143
4 OIL EXTRACTION AND REFINING
162
5 OIL PROCESSING
167
6 THE FRYING PROCESS
173
7 SELECTION OF FRYING OILS
180
8 FRYING OIL MANAGEMENT
195
9 REFERENCES
199
Hot Air Dryers
205
2 FUNDAMENTALS OF DRYING
207
3 PSYCHOMETRIC CHARTS
214
4 SIZING A DRYING SYSTEM
218
5 SELECTING A DRYER
220
6 REFERENCE
223
SNACK FOODS PREPARATION AND DEDICATED EQUIPMENT
225
Potatoes and Potato Chips
227
2 POTATO ANALYSIS AND COMPOSITION
231
3 POTATO CHIP MANUFACTURE
235
4 SUGGESTED READING
245
Use of Dried Potatoes in Snack Foods
247
3 DRIED POTATO INGREDIENTS FOR FABRICATED POTATO SNACKS
252
4 OTHER POTATO SNACK INGREDIENTS
258
6 REFERENCES
259
Tortilla Chip Processing
261
2 PROCESSING STEPS
262
4 WASHING AND DRAINING
264
5 GRINDING EQUIPMENT
267
6 RECONSTITUTION OF DRY MASA FLOUR
268
7 MASA FEEDINGPUMPINGPRESHEETING
270
8 SHEETINGCUTTING
271
9 BAKING
272
10 CONDITIONINGEQUILIBRATION
274
11 FRYING
275
12 PROCESS FLOWCHART
278
Snack Foods from Formers and HighShear Extruders
281
2 HISTORY OF CORN SNACKS PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
282
3 CORN CHIP PROCESSING
290
4 EXTRUDED BAKETYPE SNACKS
300
5 EXTRUDED FRYTYPE SNACKS
308
6 REFERENCES
314
Snack Foods from Cooking Extruders
315
2 FORMULA
316
3 HARDWARE
321
6 REFERENCES
384
Popcorn Products
385
2 RAW POPCORN SELECTION AND PREPARATION
388
3 POPPING METHODS
396
4 HOME PREPARATION OF POPCORN AND EQUIPMENT
398
5 COMMERCIAL PROCESSES FOR FRESH POPCORN
399
6 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES FOR PACKAGED POPCORN
401
7 COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL FLAVORINGS AND APPLICATORS
410
8 POPCORN PACKAGING
417
9 RELATIVE NUTRITION
418
10 MARKETING OF POPCORN
419
11 REFERENCES
420
Snack Foods of Animal Origin
421
2 JERKY PRODUCTS
425
3 SHELFSTABLE SAUSAGE STICK SNACKS
428
4 OTHER DRIED MEAT PRODUCTS
429
5 PORK RIND PRODUCTS AND EXPANDED PRODUCTS
431
6 PICKLED SNACK FOODS
433
8 DRIED AND MARINATED FISH AND SHELLFISH SNACKS
434
9 REFERENCES
435
RiceBased Snack Foods
439
3 MILLING EFFECTS
442
4 SNACK FOODS
445
5 REFERENCES
454
Japanese Snack Foods
457
3 FRIED JAPANESE CONFECTIONS
464
5 COATED JAPANESE CONFECTIONS
466
6 WESTERN CONFECTIONS
468
7 NOODLES
471
8 WESTERN SNACK FOODS
475
Snack Foods of India
477
2 ROASTED CEREAL SNACK FOODS
479
3 ROASTED LEGUME SNACK FOODS
481
4 DEHYDRATED SNACK FOODS SERVED AFTER FRYING
483
5 FRIED CEREAL SNACK FOODS
485
6 FRIED LEGUME SNACK FOODS
486
7 FRIED GRAIN AND LEGUME SNACK FOODS
488
8 FRIED FRUIT AND TUBER SNACK FOODS
489
9 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF INDIAN SNACK FOODS
490
10 REFERENCES
491
OPERATIONS AFTER SHAPING AND DRYING
493
Snack Food Seasonings
495
2 INGREDIENTS
497
3 SEASONING FORMULATION
506
4 SEASONING OF MAJOR SNACK FOODS
513
5 SUGGESTED READING
515
Snack Seasonings Application
517
2 COATING ARENAS
518
3 TYPES OF SEASONING APPLICATIONS
520
4 CONCLUSION
527
Sensory Evaluation in Snack Foods Development and Production
529
2 OVERVIEW OF FLAVOR
530
4 SENSORY METHODS
534
5 SENSORY ASPECTS OF PROCESSING
541
6 SENSORY EVALUATION DURING PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
544
7 REFERENCES
546
Product Protection and Packaging Materials
549
2 ASSESSMENT OF PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
550
3 PACKAGING MATERIALS FUNCTIONALITY
552
4 PROPERTIES OF SNACK FOOD PACKAGING MATERIALS
557
5 CURRENT ISSUES IN SNACK FOODS PACKAGING
564
Snack Foods Filling and Packaging
567
2 PACKAGE STYLES
571
3 AUTOMATED BAG AND POUCH PACKAGING
576
4 CARTONING
590
5 CASE PACKING
603
6 IMPROVING EFFICIENCY AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
605
7 SUGGESTED READING
606
Evaluation Methods and Quality Control for Snacks
607
2 QUALITY PROGRAMS
608
3 EVALUATION METHODS
613
4 STATISTICS IN QUALITY CONTROL
625
5 SUMMARY
629
Index
631
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