The Interpretation of Ecological Data: A Primer on Classification and Ordination
A detailed introduction to the methods used by ecologists--classification and ordination--to clarify and interpret large, unwieldy masses of multivariate field data. Permits ecologists to understand, not just mechanically use, pre-packaged programs for multivariate analysis. Demonstrates these techniques using artificial data simple enough for every analytical step to be understood.
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amount analysis average axes axis becomes centered centroid Chapter classes classification clustering column component computations consider consists constructed contains coordinate frame coordinates correlation corresponding covariance data matrix data points data swarm defined dendrogram denotes described diagonal diagram dimensions distance division ecological eigenanalysis eigenvalues eigenvectors elements equal equation equivalently example Figure follows four fusion given gives Hence known labeled mean measure method noticed observations obtained obviously ordination original orthogonal orthogonal matrix pair partitioning pattern percentage plotted possible present principal procedure projected quadrats quantities Recall represent respectively result rotated sampling units scores seen separate shown shows side similarity space species square standardized stations step Suppose swarm symbols symmetric matrix Table transformation transpose tree two-dimensional values variables variance vector weighted