The Scientific Attitude

Front Cover
Guilford Press, 1992 - Science - 180 pages
2 Reviews
THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE presents a systematic account of the cognitive and social features of science. Written by an experimental biologist actively engaged in research, the work is unique in its attempt to understand science in terms of day-to-day practice. The book goes beyond the traditional description of science that focuses on method and logic to characterize the scientific attitude as a way of looking at the world.

Professor Grinnell uses examples from biomedical research to describe science at three interdependent levels. At the first level, the individual scientist makes observations, formulates hypotheses, and does experiments. The scientist's thought style determines what can be seen and what it will appear to mean. At the second level, scientists participate in social institutions such as graduate programs, research groups, journal editorial boards, and grant review panels. Each of these institutions tries to promote its own distinctive collective thought style. Finally, at the third level, scientists participate in the world of everyday life beyond science, a world that continuously influences and is influenced by the activities and discoveries of science.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Observing Cells
6
Analyzing the Cell Concept
8
Learning to See Cells
10
The Cell Gestalt
14
The Concept of Life
18
The Impartiality of Science
20
Experimental Design and Interpretation
22
Research Papers
72
Research Reports Other than Formal Papers
88
Research Funding
90
Setting the Agenda for Future Research
98
The Scientific Establishment
99
Scientific Misconduct Science at Risk
101
The Meaning of Scientific Misconduct
105
A Study in Controversy
108

Hypotheses and Expectations
25
The Assumption of Reproducibility
27
Seeing Data According to Different Gestalts
29
Luck in Science
32
Explicit and Implicit Hypotheses
34
Development of Hypotheses
37
Structure Function and Organization in Biology
42
Scientific Collectives Transmission of the Thought Style
45
Acceptance of New Discoveries by the Thought Collective
49
Structure of Graduate Programs
52
The Reputation of Graduate Programs
54
Graduate Courses and Exams
56
Thesis Advisors
60
Structure of Individual Laboratories
61
Expanding the Laboratory Thought Style
65
The PhD Thesis
67
Scientific Collectives Maintaining the Thought Style
69
Evaluating Prospective Faculty Members
70
The Baltimore Case
110
Why Are They Linked Together?
112
Auditing the Scientific Literature
116
The Integrity of Science
119
Secrecy and Sharing Research Data and Materials
122
Conflict of Interest
125
Science and the World
131
The Origins of Science in Everyday Life Experience
132
Life Experience Beyond Science
135
Science and Religion
136
Science and Ethics
138
Scientists as People
141
The Influence of Politics on Science
144
Concluding Comments
153
Notes and References
159
Index
175
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About the author (1992)

Frederick Grinnell ,PhD ,The University of Texas at Dallas.

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