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we in any wise allowed to handle the word of God deceitfully, from an apprehenfion of the ill use which unstable or wicked men may make of a right interpretation of it, at the hazard of their own salvation.'
Chap. xxi. ver. 29.-- and do ye not know their tokens ? Dinni 19339 8). Rather, I think-THEIR MONUMENTS. "Cocceias makes the word to signify here a fepulchre. These it is well known were placed by the way fide. Thus Lycidas the shepherd lays to his fellow traveller Meris :
Hinc adeo media eft nobis via ; namque fepulchrum
Virg. Ecl. ix. 59. Chap. xxiv. ver. 6. They reap every one his corn in the field. -17130 752 702) The LXX. Chaldee, and Vulgate, feem to have read 752 or ny, for they thus render the place, They reap in a field which is not rþeir own. The true lection, however, seems to be 17987m 55a, and this the sense--AND THEY REAP THE FIELDS IN THE NIGHT, viz. of the opprefjed, mentioned in the next hemistic. This interpretation will be found perfectly consistent with the whole context; whereas the sense of our version seems at variance with it. This is one of those passages which the Author thinks he has restored to their primitive geauineness. Upon the latter part of this verse he remarks as follows,
and they gather the vintage of the wicked. yun :10p] Rather-of THE TROUBLED, or OPPRESSED. So yover is ufed, chap. xxxiv. 29. Thus also the Vulgate-vineam cjus, quem vi oppreferint, vindemiant.-
Chap. xxxvii. ver. 13. He caufeth it to come, whether for cor. Thaion, or for his land, or for mercy. 1378 DR vox :] repeated before y785 by the mistake of an ignorant transcriber, who finding the prefixed might think it necessary to add Ox too, as in the other instances. Without it the sense would be complete and proper-HE CAUSETH IT TO COME UPON HIS LAND, WHETHER FOR CORRECTION, OR FOR MERCY.· Chap. xxxix. ver. 19. Haft, thou clothed his neck with thun.
? ] CLOTHED HIS NECK WITH PRIDE ? For Toy has that sense in Chaldee, which seems more suitable than that of thunder.
Chap. xli. ver. 2;. When be raiseth himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of breakings
, they purify themselves, 1792 invo . -] ligible in the latter hemistic : the old one is; but the words cannot admit of that construction, viz. and for fear they faint in themjelves. The verse ought to be thus rendered-BY REASON OF HIS GREATNESS (his enormous bulk) THE MIGHTY ARE AFRAID : THEY WHO BRUISE HIM (endeavour fo to do) MISS THEIR AIM, wo is here construed as chap. xxxi. 23. and Nonn as Judg. xx. 10. and chap. v. 24. This is very opposite to the context.
* Psalm xix. ver. 3. There is no speech or language, where their voice is . : ) ] Rather-Though they have No SPEECH NOR L'ANGUAGE,
is אם It is not improbable that [=אס לחסד ימצאהו :
Rather HAST THOU [התלביש צוארו רעמה: ?der
YET THEIR VOICE IS HEARD. So Noldius, who gives this sense to the verse, and it is truly a sublime one: for whether we consider the heavens as the seat of the meteors, whose awful found is often heard; or confine the idea to their admirable structure, which will draw forth praise and admiration from him that contemplates on them; the thought is truly poetical.
• Pfalm xxxvi. ver. 5. Thy mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens; and thy faithfulness unto . : D'Pro 7° 7073128-] Rather-THY MERCY, O LORD, IS LIKE THE' HEAVENS; and THY FAITHFULNESS AS THE CLOUDS. If the , in Dow) is not an error for , see a similar construction of the same letter, Isa. xlviii. 10. Pf. xlii. 10. See also 74 thus used, Nah. i. 10.
i Chron. iv. 27.
The next verse confirms this sense.
Query. Whether the fentiinent conveyed in our English version is not more grand and satisfactory than that which is imparted by this Author's emendation ?
• Pl. xlix. ver. 8.--and it cealetis for ever.-:babyyb 5791] These words are, I think, improperly connected with those that immediately precede, viz. For the redemption of their foul (or of his soul, according to the old versions) is precious. Those ought, I think, to make part of the foregoing verse, and the next verse begin with these, thus,-BUT HE WILL CEASE FOR EVER, THOUGH HE WOULD LIVE TO ETERNITY AND NOT SEE CORRUPTION. The verb 777 fignifies to be in a fiate of utter ceffation; to be lifeless, or dead. Isaiah xxxviii. 11.
Pr. xxxix. 4. • Ver. 11. Their inward thought is that their hoidjes shall continue for ever.- 702 ) All the ancient versions, without exception, read here Diap, instead of D2?; which yields a much better sense (and ought doubtless to be admitted) viz. THEIR SEPULCHRE shall be THEIR HOUSES FOR EVER, THEIR DWELLING TO ALL GENERATIONS.
Pr. li. ver. 5. Behold I was frapen in iniquity, &c.] So Tullyfimul atque editi in lucem et suscepti sumus, in omni continuo pravitate verjamur, -ut pene cum laete nutricis errorem Juxifjë videamur. Tulc. Disp. lib. iii. cap. i.
*Pl.lxxxiv. ver 3. Yca, the sparroz hath found on house, and the swallowv a rest for herself, where jhe may lay her young, even thine al. tars, &c.
)" d'ant here, might not we read ,777 or 078, and render-AS THE SPARROW FINDETH AN HOUSE, AND THE SWALLOW A NEST, WHERE SHE MAY LAY HER YOUNG, so LET ME APPROACH (or, LET ME BE PLACED AT) THINE ALTARS, &c. ? is used as a particle of comparison, Jer. li. 49.
- Ver. 5.-in whole heart are the ways of them. Soba :01221, Rather, I think-IN WHOSE HEART are PRAISES: for the verb 140 fignifies to extol, or praise. Ps. Ixviii. 4.
• Ver. 6. Who paling through the valley of Baca, make it a will: the pools. : 9772 009-10 Dal'Thus, I think, the he.
גם צפור מצאה בית--ודרור קן לה- אשר שתה .ters
, & c -ieens rather redtn את As [אפרחיה-את מזבחותיך
אזכיר רחב ובבל לידעי-חנה פלשת
.man quas bere there [וצור עם כוש-זה ילד שם:
miftics ought to be distinguished, which will give this fenfe PASSING THROUGH THE VALE OF WEEPING, THEY WILL MAKE IT A SOURCE EVEN OF BLESSINGS: IT WILL PUT ON A NEW FACE; or IT WILL BE CLOTHED WITH A CHANGE. 7919 is here considered as a noun, from 770, which fignifies to make a change in the circumfrances, or to alter to the reverse. See Hof. iv. 7. Mic. ii. 4, and I read, with the ancient
. • Pf. lxxxvii. ver. 4. I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to iben ibat know me; bebold Philiftia, and Tyre,, with Ethiopia, this . ,
) Rather-I WILL SPEAK, TO THOSE THAT KNOW ME, OF EGYPT, AND BABYLON; BEHOLD, OF PHILISTIA, AND TYRE, WITH ETHIOPIA, saying, SUCH A ONE WAS BORN THERE. The fame with oduct is used contemptuously, viz. as for THIS MOSES, tbe man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. Exod. xxxii. i. The meaning of this verse I conceive to be no other than this, viz. “ that in speaking to my acquaintance concerning Egypt, Babylon, and all the other neigh: bouring countries, I shall make mention of the greatest persons born in them as mere ordinary characters, from whose births their respective countries will derive no great credit, in comparison of that' in. finitely more eminent native of Judea, who is the subject of the following verse."
• Ver. 5. And of Zion it shall be said, This and that man was born in her: and the Highest himfilf fall establish her. x 1935
] -- BUT OF ZION IT SHALL BE SAID, THE MOST EMINENT OF MEN WAS BORN IN HER; AND HE, THE MOST HIGH, SHALL ESTABLISH HER. 08 put in oppofition to +27 (as before explained) fignifies a man of consequence : and, according to the Oriental phraseology, by their reduplication, must mean the fuperlative or highest degree : or the man, even the man, signifies the man of men, THE GREATEST OF ALL MEN. According to this interpretation every one will see who this eminent personage was to be, from whose birth Zion (used by a Synecdoche for Judea) was to acquire so much glory. The latter hemittic seems to me to have reference, not to God the Father, but to his Son: it appearing to be exegetical of the preceding one, and to describe his divine, as the other does, his human nature.
* Pl. xcix. ver. 4. The king's firength also loveth judgment. 2018 ODWO 750] Rather, I think--For thou, o MIGHTY KING, who LOVEST:JUSTICE, DOST, &c. I conGider 2178 as the participle present; in order to avoid the enallage in the next hemitic. Our translators seem to have understood the king's forengti in the same fense as Homer uses Bon Hparanır.
• Pl. cxli. ver. 6. When their judges are overthrown in pony places, ibey shall bear my words, for they are jweit. - We have here the words 2270 7), which fignify literally in the hands of the rock : but as D'7', wien applied to the sea, Pr. civ. 25, is used for its gulpls
and windings, so here it may denote the recelles, boles, or sides of the rock, where Saul and his officers were let go free by David; for this evidently is the true sense of onw in this place. I would therefore render the verse thus, THEIR
RULERS WERE LET GO IN THE SIDES OF THE ROCK, AND HEARD MY WORDS, which WERE KIND.'
In the criticisms upon the rogth Pfalm this Author takes notice of Dr. Sykes's remark, that the imprecations here delivered are spoken against David by his adversaries. Dr. Durell wishes to acquiesce in this conclusion, but considers it as fraught with insuperable difficulties. The 20th verse he apprehends. destroys the hypothesis, beside which, the objection, he thinks, still remains as to many other parts of the Old Teftament. Neither is he satisfied with the supposition that these imprecations are, in every instance prophetic denunciations of God's judgments upon impenitent finners. « The most probable account of the matter, in my humble opinion, says he, is this, that God Almighty-did not interpose by his grace, or act upon the minds of his peculiar people, no not even of their prophets, in an extraordinary manner, except when he vouchsafed to suggest some future event, or any other circumstance that might be for the public benefit of mankind. In all other respects (I apprehend) they were left to the full exercise of their free will, without controul of the divine impulse. Now God had abundantly provided in that code of moral and ceremonial institutes which he had given the people for their law, that the poor, the fatherless, the widow, and Aranger, should be particularly regarded; whence they ought to have learnt to be inerciful as their Father in heaven is merciful: and it must be confefled that we sometimes find such behaviour and sentiments in the Jews, with respect to their enemies, as may be deemed truly chriftian ; see Pr. xxxv. 13, 14, &c. But, in that very system of laws, it was also, for wise reasons, ordained that they should have no intercourse with the seven nations of the Canaanites, but should absolutely exterminate them ; whence they unwarrantably drew this inference, that they ought to love their neighbours ; but hate their enemies, as our Lord declares, Matt. v. 43. From there devoted nations they extended the precept to the rest of mankind, that were not within the pale of their church ; nay sometimes to their own domestic enemies, those of their own blood and communion with whom they were at variance.-How far it may be proper to continue the reading of these psalms in the daily service of our church, I leave to the confideration of the legislature to determine. A Christian of erudition may confider those iinprecations only as the natural sentiments of Jews, which the benign religion he profeítes abhors and condemns but what are the illiterate to do, who know not where to draw
the line between the law and the gospel ? They hear both read, one after the other, and I fear too often think them both of equal obligation ; and even take shelter under fcripture to cover their curses. Though I am confcious I here tread upon flippery ground, I will take leave to hint, that, notwithstanding the high antiquity that fanctifies, as it were, this practice, it would, in the opinion of a number of wise and good men, be more for the credit of the Chriftian church to omit a few of those psalms, and to substitute fome parts of the gospel in their ftead.'
Let us now add two or three farther criticisms from the books of Proverbs.
• Chap. v. ver. 6.° Left thou ponder the path of life, her ways are moveable, that thou can't not know them. The first hemiftic does not well connect with the latter, or the context, in our version; and that, because our translators assign a wrong person to the verb; for oson is equally the ad per. masc. or the 3d fem. of the future, as every Tyro knows. This oversight is the more remarkable, as they had doubtless the old version before them, which renders the word properly thus—SHE WEIGHETH NOT THL WAY OF LIFE : HER PATHS ARE MOVEABLE; THOU CAN'ST NOT KNOW THEM.
• Chap. xvi. ver. 1. The preparations of the heart in man, and the answer of the tongue is from the Lord. The opposition between God and man, and the other members of these two hemistics feems to fhew, that they ought (as most of these proverbs are, particularly ver. 9.) to be construed separately, thus-To MAN belong THE INCLINATIONS OF THE HEART: BUT BY THE LORD IS THE TONGUE ASSISTED. That is (as I apprehend) contrives, but the fuccefs of his designs depends upon God:” the fame sentiment as at ver. 9, but differently expressed. For the alifing of the tongue, in order to execute any purpose, seems clearly.to imply this idea. I construe,y as the participle Pabul, and give it the sense it has, Pl. xxii. 21. lxv. 5, &c.
• Ver. 11. A juft weight and balance are the Lord's :-RatherTHE WEIGHT AND THE BALANCE are THE ORDINANCE OF THE LORD; i, e. of his appointment. So is bavSrendered, Exod. xv. 25. Lev. xxiv. 22. 2 Chron, xxxv. 13. Neh, vii. 18, &c. There seems to be no occafion to add any epithet ; for if they be not true according to the standard, they are not then weights or balances ; and ftill less can they be called the Lord's appointment. They are therefore here used rar" toxu, as when Solo. mon says, that whoso findeth a wife, findeth a good thing, chap.
• Ver. 33. The lot is cat into the lap :- What our translators understood by lap in this place, I do not know: but am clear, that PN) ought to be rendered, INTO THE MIDST (as i Kings xxii. 37.) viz. of the urn or vesel, into which the ifferent billets were cast. In somer we find they were put in an helmet, iliad, H. V. 175, and 181.