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place of the fracture : and in this case the use of the mercurial ointment was equally fuccessful.
Art. III. Letters concerning the present State of England, particularly
respecting Politics, Arts, Manners, and Literature of the Times, concluded. N a former * number of our Review, we gave a general ac
count of the present publication; and while we censured it as defective on topics which have a relation to taste; we could not but express our approbation of what the author has offered on politics and government. It remains, that we now lay before our readers what we have farther to observe concerning it:
On the subjects of trade, agriculture, and manufactures, this writer has hazarded various oberfvations, which are fingular and lively; but, in general, they are little supported by expe. rience or argument. Take for example the following position, which he delivers with a most dogmatical air : . The very ex. istence of a people proves, that they have agriculture.” Our author has surely never enquired into the earlier history of nations ; if he had, he would have observed, that men in the form of communities and tribes have actually subfifted during ages, without being acquainted with any thing that deferves the name of agriculture. Even at this day some tribes in America sublift solely by hunting and fishing; and the ancient historians, when they treat of the original inhabitants of Gaul and Germany, uniformly maintain, that they supported themselves by the same methods. The age of agriculture is in every country preceded by the age of hunters and fishers, and is fucceeded by what philosophers denominate the age of civilization and refinement.A multitude of similar inaccuracies occur in this performance, and render the perusal of it dangerous to the generality of readers.
The following extract, added to our former specimens, will give our Readers a sufficient idea of this Author's manner:
How, says he, are we fo to harmonize agriculture, manufactures, commerce and population, as to make them moft beneficial to the collective interests of the state? This I think is the question, and it appears clearly enough from these disquisitions, that the national good requires that conduct which will bring, not the greatest and quickest degree of what is commonly called prosperity, but the greatest durability of the present advantages enjoyed by a people: but remember that I keep clear in this enquiry of the revolutions of the constitution, because good government is a blessing, greater than that of all others; but we very well know, that great riches are better formed to destroy than improve a constitution.
April, p. 438.
Here Here then the just condu&t is explained : give whatever encouragement you please to agriculture, you will never thereby make the kingdom too rich ; nor occasion too quick a rise; and all the population you create is independant on the changes of trade or foreign affairs, and can in no respect prove burthensome to the community. Confine manufactures to the satisfying that consumption which is certain, which is your own; but the moment you become manufacturers of foreign commodities, and for foreign markets, you lay the foundations of that quick rise and wealth, which is sure foon to come tumbling down. Trade Thould grow out of agricutture and manufactures, and be regulated by them; it will then never become so great and infecure as that of Holland has proved. Population depends on the three preceding; the people bred by such regulated interests, will be in proportion to their certain employment; industry can never decline, nor population be burthensome. No schemes or plans of conduct should be adopted for increasing the people, which are always pernicious; that increase should grow out of their employment naturally and regularly: nothing but the height of folly could produce the idea of forcing these matters by naturalization tills : no country should have more people than is found in it: because more not being found, is proof sufficient that the number is proportioned to the food, wealth, induftry, and other circumstances. When the population of a country declines, it ought to decline, and bringing over foreigners only accelerates the evil; nothing can possibly increase it but an increase of industry; but while that is falling, to think of making population rise, is to fight against nature.
• The true harmony is to make agriculture flourishing enough to support your own people: to make manufactures fubfervient to the demand of your own people: and commerce proportioned to agriculture and manufactures: these, so provided, population to be left to itself.
A conduct very contrary to this has been the fashion of late years throughout all Europe; and the quick progress of the power of England has been chiefly owing to a different system : this forms no found reason against the preceding ideas; for I have admitted, that the plan here laid down is not formed for a quick progress in power, but for a durability of prosperity. As the practice of the age is so very different, it will not be improper to enquire into the probable consequences on the affairs of Great Britain.
! We have attained to an amazing height of wealth and power, and with it have burthened the kingdom with a population much greater than we should know what to do with, in case of a reverse of fortune; and we have not only run in debt to an amazing degree, but also set an example of profusion to
all future administrations, which will in all probability have most speedy and wonderful effects in increasing such incumbrances; which, however rich the kingdom is, muft undoubtedly end in Bankruptcy : I have in a former letter shewed, that the kingdom may support, this debt vastly increased, and even rise like a phenix out of the ruins of it: no one can say that this is not possible, but at the same time it depends on a fortunate conjuncture, and various advantages centering in one point. So that there is no reason to wish for the experiment.
• Whatever may be the event, the plain fact is, that the great system of trade and manufacture have carried the kingdom to a height, in which they cannot probably support it; or, ia one word, have rendered our state great, but extremely precarious. And this is so strongly the case, that the nation has perhaps, of all others in the universe, the least reason to congratulate herself on her sudden rise to such boundless power.
• For it is not the possession of great riches and formidable power that constitutes the real prosperity of this kingdom ; but on the contrary, the mere durability of her prosperity; and it would not be a difficult talk to prove, that this durability leffens almost in proportion to the magnitude of the wealth and power. We have had great success in arms, but unfortunately, our most brilliant wars (to reason for a moment on the principles of those whose doctrines I am at present opposing) are merely the means of exhausting us, but never those of repairing or adding to our ftrength.
• If trade and manufacture are made our grand supports, we are inconsistent, if we do not push our advantages by enlarging both; or at least of making such acquisitions, as shall repay us some of that immense waste of wealth which archieved the conquest. On the contrary, we conquer at the expence of hundreds of millions, only to thew our generosity in giving back to our enemies. I need not observe, that this has ever been the fatality of this country, and is a strong proof of how little avail our riches and our power are, if they only enable us to make conquests, which we are necellitated to restore. I say neceffitated; it is our conftitution, that a pack of rascals, who have been idle thro' a war, should riggle themselves into power, and to preserve it, patch up our peace; this has been the case ever since king William's reign; and I shall venture to prophesy, that it ever will be the case, till we have a king on the throne, who enters as much into the spirit of a war as that prince did.
« For what should we be so eager to gain immense wealth and power, which, from their quick rise and magnitude, cannot be permanent ? All that Britain can fairly allert to have gained by them, has been the entertainment during the period of a war, of half a score extraordinary Gazettecs : this is the real fact ;
and every Gazette, at a moderate computation, adding five millions sterling to her national debt. If these effects of her greatness are more desirable than that more modest state, but durability of national advantages, which I have mentioned as the effect of a very different conduct--of harmonizing agrişulture, manufactures, commerce and population; I must confess myself utterly mistaken.'
Although chis Writer seems rather fond of dogmatizing than of reasoning, yet there is good sense in some of his observations; and, on the whole, his style might have appeared with lets diradvantage, had his book been more correctly printed. — There is a mistake in the lait page, which must be owing to misinformation.— Arthur Young, Esq; the writer on Husbandry, &c, iş pot the son of Dr. Young, author of the Night Troughts. Arr. IV, An Inquiry into the Scripture Meaning of the Word Satan, and
its synonimous Terms, the Devil, or the Adversary, and the Wicked One. Wherein also the Notions concerning Devils, or Demons, are brought down to the Standard of Scripture. 8vo.
2 s. 6 d. Wheble. 1772
O those who are acquainted with the writings of Arch
bishop Tillotson, and of Mr. Whiston, against the eternity of hell torments; of Sykes, Lardner, and others, against the reality of dæmoniacal poflessions; and with the still more recent publications of Mr. Farmer, on certain subjects of the fame general tendency and nature, this performance will not seem to have any thing particularly novel or surprizing in it. For ourselves, we acknowledge, that having, more especially of late, seen various publications, all of which tended, though in somewhat different ways, to lower our ideas of the once very formidable power, and most extensive dominion, and infuence, of Satan, we have thought it very probable that, sooner or later, some bold adventrous reasoner of the present age would be tempted to go a step beyond any of these celebrated writers, and even call the very being of Satan into question. Such a genius we have now, as we think, for the first time before us : and though his scheme will doubtless appear, to some, to be romantic, and to others dangerous; yet, for the sake of such as are less offended with free and independent opinions, we think it our duty to give an account of the manner in which this daring Writer has ventured to deal with the Devil.
His design is to Thew, by a regular and particular induction of all the texts in both Testaments, which have been generally supposed to relate to Satan and his kingdom, that no such doctrine as that of a fall of angels is taught in any of them; and that no such being as Satan is mentioned in them, in the sense in which that term is now generally taken. But before he enters upon this his immediate design, he has thought proper to 3
prepare his way by an introduction of some length; in which, amongst other preliminary observations, he undertakes to ac. count for the original of the present prevailing opinion. And as this part of his undertaking is by no means the least interefing and curious, though we fear but of doubtful merit, we shall lay before our Readers the substance of what he has said
According to this Author, then, the notion of a fall of angels, which has so long prevailed in the Christian church, with all the authority of doélrine, is grounded on two texts in the New Testament, which do really refer to a very different event. These texts are, 2 Pet. ii. 4; and Jude 6. And the following is his translation and interpretation of the former of them.
« But there were also false prophets among the people, as among you there will be false teachers, who will introduce destructive heresies, and denying the Lord that bought them, do bring upon themselves swift deftruction. And many shall follow their destructive heresies, through whom the way of truth thall be blasphemed, and in covetousness with feigned words they will make merchandize of you: to whom the judgment of old lingereth not, and the desiruction of them (of old) Numbereth not. For if God spared not the messengers that sinned, but having tartarized them with chains of darkness, delivered them, thus reserved, unto judgment; and spared not the old world, but preserved Noe the Eighth, a preacher of sighteousness, having brought a flood upon the world of the ungodly; and did reduce the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into alhes, condemned to that catastrophe, being made an ensample to those who should after live ungodly; and delivered just Lot, offended with the filthy conversation of the wicked the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished.”
This translation, says the Author, may be compared with our English version of the New Testament, and both of them with the original. The most material alteration is in verse 4, where, instead of the angels, I have put the messengers, that finned. These messengers, I apprehend, are no other than the men who were sent from the wilderness of Paran to search the land of Canaan, which the Lord had promised to the children of Israel. They were messengers that finned; for when they returned they laid before the people an evil and exaggerated report, which caused the heart of the people to faint, and discouraged them from following the Lord who had promised. It moreover appears that they were tartarized with chains of darkness; for notwithstanding all that the Lord had done before their eyes in the land of Egypt, and at the Red Sea-notwithstanding he had given them bread from heaven, and waters out