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The object of his present enquiry is curious, but the side of the queftion which he endeavours to support, is that which has, for fome time, been rather deserted by the learned, as hardly defensible; though, in more diftant periods, the explication which he here contends for, was generally regarded as the true fense and meaning of the passage under examination,
In a religious view, no doubt, the verses referred to in the above title, may be ufed by pious persons, as expressing their faith and hope in a future life, with the comfort they derive from it: but whether this was the original design of the words is at least doubtful; and it must be confessed there appears to be much reason and force in those arguments, which are brought to prove that Job had only a view to a more cheerful and happy ftate of the present life, in which he firmly believed the good providence of God would hereafter place him, notwithstanding his present calamitous circumstances.
It is indeed allowed, that the ancient Jews confidered the words either as expressive of a future state in general, or of the resurrection of the body in particular. In this last explication succeeding interpreters have concurred, and not without some reason, especially on account of the solemn and weighty preface with which the declaration is introduced, as containing somewhat of the highest moment and importance. The addtion which is made by the septuagint to the last verse of the book of Job is remarkable in this respect, and perhaps might have particular regard to the verses here under consideration : Su Jet died, being old and full of days; but it is written that he shall nije again with those whom the Lord raises up. Further, some expositors have thought, that allowing Job to have spoken in prophetical terms of his restoration to temporal greatness and prosperity, those terms must be considered as bigbly figurative, and should this be acknowledged as their true meaning, it will ftill be at least the borrowing of a figure from the notion and expectation of the resurrection of the dead.-But without farther obfervations on the subject, we proceed to lay before our Rea. ders fome view of Mr. Velthusen's method and arguments : from which it appears that he has been very conversant with the Hebrew language, that he has taken great pains in the examination of ancient MSS. verfions, &c. and in a critical investigation of the sentences and words which compose this celebrated
of the Old Testament writings. He begins with some general remarks on the various readings of the Old Testament. If says he, the subject of enquiry be concerning the whole of the sacred yolume, I can never per suade myself that it is falsely written: I much rather apprehend that a far greater number of errors are crept into the writings
of the Greeks and Romans, in proportion to their age ; though these writings are of much later date. It is not indeed supposeable, without a miracle, that the amanuenses should never have erred in transcribing the Hebrew text: this certainly is the less to have been expected, because we find that with regard to the New Testament, though much more recently published, all errors are not avoided, as plainly appears from the different readings which are found in MSS
This Writer proceeds to other reflections on the advantages arising from critical enquiries and conjectures ; which, if carefully executed, may often prove greatly serviceable toward elucidating different parts of the sacred text. Among other instances of this kind, he in particular mentions the observations of Dr. Kennicott on 1 Sam. vi. 19. ' who has shewn that Josephus, and two MSS. of better note, instead of fifty thousand and seventy, as it stands in our translation, read only seventy*.' This is an emendation drawn from different readings; and, in like manner, a critical conjecture, sometimes so greatly recommends itself, that there can be no doubt but that it ought to be received as the true reading. No one, says he, can hesitate whether in Jer. xxvii. 1. (compared with v. 3 and 12.) D() (Zedekiah.')
• But, adds our Author, the variety of readings in the facred scriptures is not so great as either to destroy the perspicuity of the discourse, or to give any reason to suspect a corruption in those places where the sense is sufficiently clear and evident.'
In the second section we arrive more immediately at the direct subject of the treatise, and here we are presented with a Latin version of the whole passage. Job's friends, it is observed, had contended that piety is rewarded in the present state of things: Job firmly maintained the contrary ; upon which they accused him of overthrowing the justice of the Supreme Being. Job therefore appeals to his posterity, and makes a profeffion of his only expectation and hope in the following Serms:
• Per hanc, amici, priftinam teflor fidem,
Per sacra quavis obfecro :
Pellus moverent ferreum!
Impune jam lacefsitis?
Nimium malignis carpere?
) ought not to be exchanged for) יהויקס
Vid. Monthly Review, for April 1768,
Ok perenni traderetur pofteris
- Oraculum volumine!
Nudisve fculptus rupibus!
Haud poterunt ; ita me ridenti fronte beabit.
Divina quanquam fentio ;
Pænæ manent certiffimæ.
Curare jus mortalium!' In the third section our Critic thus proceeds,' every person will at once perceive that this oration is to be understood of the şefurrection of the body. Job's discourse had been concerning religion. He makes a profeflion of his faith (vi. 8—10. xvi. 20.) that he might destroy the frivolous accusations of his friends. But if he referred to some expected time of enjoyment in the present state, the meaning of his expressions is weak and foolish : "Cease, my friends, to charge me with denying that hunian affairs are governed in a righteous manner, because I insist that I shall never see any happier times in the present life : but hear, o posterity, what is my consolation, with which I vindicate io myself the rectitude of the Supreme Being : although I am fully persuaded that I fall never be favoured with more proSperous circum;lunces IN THIS LIFE, yet I know, that IN THIS LIFE more joyful times shall arrive to me.”-If such was his meaning, what occafion was there for fo sharp a contest between him and his friends Further it should be observed, that it is usual in facred poetry to introduce, with some peculiar solemnity and grandeur of expression, any oracle which is recommended above others to the regard and faith of pofterity.'
In this manner, together with some few confiderations added in a note, Mr. Velthusen endeavours to defend his interpretation of the words. He makes a number of critical remarks on the distinct words of which these verses are composed ; and in feveral following fections he transcribes the whole passage according as it appears in many ancient versions : to all which are
fubjoined a careful collection of the various readings to be met with in this small part of the sacred writings.
In the fourteenth section he acquaints his readers that, although, in his opinion, the observations he has made with to much attention, ought to be sufficient for the explication of this passage, he has thought proper carefully to run over the contents of the whole poem, and transcribe those verses, by which the controverted system of Job's faith might be illustjated, and a stronger light thrown on his exposition of the paragraph.'
Accordingly he offers to our confideration a great number of pallages from different parts of this book, on all which he adds, in the notes, many critical remarks: some of the verses thus selected appear to oppose his opinion, others seem very favourable to it; particularly on account of some little different turn which he gives them in his translation. We shall transcribe the following, in the Author's own words, which the more learned Reader may compare with our version, and with the original.
Job xvii. 13-16. Si quid mihi tamen exspectandum est, exspecto interos, apud quos domicilium meum habeo. In rega num tenebrarum lectus mihi ftratus est. Pulvis & putredo, unde originem duco, parentum mihi loco erunt; et cum vermibus, tanquam cum fratribus familiariter verfabor. Quid enim ? nihil amplius exfpecto. (quantum ad hanc vitam) . Spem autem (æternæ felicitatis) quam pectore foveo, nemo veftrum animadvertit. In folitudines inferni hæc fpes (mecum) descendet: fiquidem junetis viribus impugnatam mortem conculcabimus.'
• Hicherto, therefore, remarks cur Author, Job rejects all hope as to the present life, at the same time that he establishes a nobler hope. I wish my readers would observe that these were his last words, before he delivered those which are contained in the nineteenth chapter. Now, I would ask, who can suppose that, after those fucile censures of Bildad which are related in the eighteenth chapter, he should so suddenly have changed his mind, and immediately have believed that which he had so strenuously denied :' viz. that he did retain the hope of enjoyment and prosperity in this world.
The 30th and 31st chapters of this book conclude the dircourses of Job; after taking notice of which, Mr. Velthusen remarks, that this is the last of Job's conferences; from whence it appears, that from the beginning to the end of the debate, it was his fixed and perpetual opinion, that all hope of deliverance and salvation for him must be placed in a life to çome. Therefore can any person doubt whether or not the pineteenth chapter of this book relates to the resurrection of the body?'
We shall conclude with recommending this little treatise to the attention of those who enquire critically into facred subjects, as they may here meet with several observations worthy of their particular regard.
XV. Gerardil B. Van Swieter, &c. Commentaria, &c.-The Commenta
ries of G, B. Van Swieten, &c. on the Aphorisms of Boerhaave,
&c. Vol. V. Quarto. Leyden. 1772. I N the volume now before us the public at length see the
completion of a laborious and valuable work, begun by the learned Author near thirty years ago. As the great merit of these commentaries is universally known, it is wholly unneces. fary for us to say any thing more concerning this concluding volume, than that the execution of it is, at least, equal to tha: of the preceding volumes.
XVI. Hijoire & Memoires de la Societé, &c.-The History and Memoirs of
the Society formed at Amsterdam, for the Recovery of Persons that
have been drowned. Fourth part. 8vo. Amsterdam. 1772. WE
E have already, in a former Appendix *, given a pretty
full account of the inftitution and design of this benevolent. fociety, and of the remarkable fuccess with which their labours have been attended. We find, by the present publication, that the same benevolent and humane design is ftill profecuted, and has been attended with equal success.
ART. XVII. Elettricismo artificiale, de Gianbatista Beccaria.- Artificial Ele&ri.
city' t. 4to. 1772. Imported by Elmlley. THIS *HIS curious treatise is dedicated to the Duke of Chablais,
the king of Sardinia's second son, who has long studied physicks, and particularly this branch of it, under the tuition of the ingenious Author, who is professor of natural philosophy in the university of Turin.
Signor Beccaria prefixes to his work a letter of compliment to Dr. Franklin, whom he juftly looks upon as the father of ele&tricity; and it is with a degree of enthusiasm that he speaks of his discoveries. To you, says he, it was given to enlighten the mind of man in this new science. It is you that have disa armed the thunder of all its terrours, and your daring genius bas even taught the fire of heaven that was looked upon as the weapon of omnipotence, to obey your voice.
To vol. xlv. p. 556. + Artificial electricity is not precisely the meaning of Elettricismo artificiale, which is a phrase of the Author's own invention, and by which he seems to mean that activity of the electric fuid that is exsited by art.