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have recourse to the fpelling-book, Young gentlemen and ladies, however, paffed fuch rudiments, would be very little edified by fuch definitions as the following: "Which are regular Verbs." Thofe that in the paft time of the indicative, and in the fuffering form of the participial mode, end both in ed.' The end of grammar is perfpicuity; but this is perfectly cabalistical.

Art. 25. Some hiftorical Account of Guinea; with an Enquiry into the Rife and Progrefs of the Slave-Trade, its Nature, and lamentable Effects. Allo a Republication of the Sentiments of feveral Authors of Note on this interefting Subject. By Antony Benezet, 8vo. 2s. 6d. fewed. Owen. 1772.

Wholly collected, and not injudicioufly, from a confiderable variety of authors; and intended to fhew both the iniquity of the flavetrade, and of our enflaving the negroes, &c, in our colonies. It was first printed at Philadelphia, in 1771.

Art. 26. Trifles. By Vortigern Crancoce, Efq; A. B. C. D. and E. F. G. H. I. and K. L. M. N. and O. P. Q. R. S. and T. V. U. W. X. Y, Z. 12mo. 2 s. fewed. Bladon. 1772. An odd medley of indifferent poetry, and inelegant profe; of dulnefs and humour; of fenfe and abfurdity. It is, for the most part, both frivolous and tedious; and not innocent enough to give, that propriety to the harmlefs-founding title which was feen in modeft Dodfley's inoffenfive book*, from whence it may have been borrowed.

Art. 27. An Introduction to the most useful European Languages; confifting of felect Paffages from the molt celebrated English, French, Italian, and Spanish Authors. With Tranflations as clofe as poffible; fo difpofed, in columns, as to give in one View the Manner of exprefling the fame Sentence in each Language. By Jofeph Baretti, 8vo. 6 s. Davies, &c. 1772.

The nature and defign of this publication are fufficiently clear to our Readers from the above fpecification: and the utility of fuch a fcheme, to all perfons who with to be acquainted with thefe languages, is alfo very apparent. In his fhort preface Mr. Baretti tells us, that he has taken fome pains to render this work useful, and is pretty confident that teachers, as well as learners, will find it convenient. Exactnefs in rendering the meaning, fays he, is what I have chiefly endeavoured after in the following verfions: but let it be remembered (he adds) that this fort of exactnefs often precludes elegance, and forces fometimes a tranflator into petty improprieties of diction.' This laft is a very juft obfervation, and a reader of any tolerable judgment will readily make every proper allowance for the circumstance.

In that part of this work where the English is only a translation, we obferve fome inftances in which it is at least doubtful whether the Author has employed the moft eafy or fuitable expreffions, or given the full fenfe of the original: but, on the whole, the performance is well adapted to facilitate an acquaintance with these different languages; and the learner will no doubt find a confiderable benefit.

Dodley's Trifles, published about thirty years ago, in one volume 8vo.


from having each of them thus placed before Him at one view, that he may minutely examine and compare them.

Art. 28. Calculations deduced from first Principles, in the most familiar Manner, by plain Arithmetic; for the Ufe of the Societies inftituted for the Benefit of old Age; intended as an Introduction to the Study of the Doctrine of Annuities. By a Member of one of the Societies. 8vo. 6 s. Boards. Ridley. 1772.

This publication is well adapted to answer the purpofes for which it is intended, viz. To inform the inattentive, to undeceive the credulous, to caution the unwary, and to detect, expofe, and fupprefs fome newly-established fcandalous impofitions on the public. There is hardly a member of any of the benefit focieties, who will not be able to judge for himfelf, by the affiftance of thefe calculadons, as to the infufficiency and injustice of the plans on which they were first established. The Author has taken immenfe pains to render this work univerfally intelligible; and it may be confidered as a very important and ufeful performance. Some may think, that he has erred in the extreme of unneceffary minutenefs and prolixity; bdt all will allow, that this is very excufable in a writer, who withed to be generally understood, and who addreffes himself, not to adepts' on this fubject, but to thofe who had very little acquaintance with it fuch are most of the members, perhaps we might add, fome of the managers of the Annuitant Societies. To their perufal we recommend this work, not doubting, that it will produce conviction. We could with this ingenious Author to reconfider fome of his remarks in the Addenda.

Art. 29. An Effay towards an Investigation of the Origin and Elements of Language and Letters, that is, Sounds and Symbols: Wherein is contidered their analogy, and power to exprefs the radical Ideas on which the primitive Language appears to have "been formed. By L. D. Nelme. 4to. 6 s. Boards. Leacroft. 1772.

We have no great inclination to decide the controversy between Mr. Jones, of whofe publications we have taken notice in fome former numbers, and the Author of this article. Mr. J. claims precedence, to which we have no manner of objection; and in retorn for our civility, we hope, he will entertain a more favourable opinion of us; and no longer advertise us to the public, as "fceptics and infidels, because we have no faith in his bieroglyfic and argrafi fyftem. It must be acknowledged, that both thefe authors poffefs very extraordinary talents for etymological difcoveries. They enter into the ftructure of every word and letter with most attonithing minutenefs, and find out myfteries in language, which werenever thought of in its original formation. An abaract of Mr. Nelme's plan would take up more room than we can allow to this article, and yet afford no great entertainment to our Readers.

According to this Author, the two effential forms, whence the elements of all letters are derived, are the line and the circle O. These two characters combined exprefs the idea of all in a variety of languages; and therefore all men in all ages, ever had, and cannot but have, precifely the fame ideas of them. Thefe forins, with

their derivatives, make up the thirteen radical fymbols, which are to be the foundation of an univerfal character and language. Our Readers will obferve, that this effay is only an introduction to a more extenfive work.

Art, 30. Calendars of the ancient Charters, &c. and of the Welch and Scottish Rolls, now remaining in the Tower of London : Also, Calendars of all the Treaties of Peace, &c. entered into by the Kings of England with thofe of Scotland; and of fundry Letters and public inftruments relating to that Kingdom, now in the Chapter Houfe at Westminster. Together with Catalogues of the Records brought to Berwick from the Royal Treafury at Edinburgh; of fuch as were tranfmitted to the Exchequer at Westminfter, and of those which were removed to different Parts of Scotland by Order of King Edward I. The Proceedings relating to the carrying back the Records of Scotland into that Kingdom; and the Tranfactions of the Parliament there from the 15th of May 1639 to the 8th of March 1650. To which are added, Memoranda concerning the Affairs of Ireland, extracted from the Tower Records. To the whole is prefixed an Introduction, giving fome Account of the State of the public Records from the Conqueft to the prefent Time. 4to. 11, 1s. W. and J. Rich ardfon, Printers, Fleettreet. 1772.

This very full and diftinct title, fuperfedes the neceffity of our mentioning the contents of the prefent work. Concerning its merit it is fufficient to remark, that it may be useful to future antiquaries and hiftorians. The Introduction to it appears to be exceedingly accurate, and is drawn up by a perfon, particularly converfant in the history of Great Britain.

RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIAL. Art. 31. The Cafe of the Diffenting Minifters. Addreffed to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal. By Ifrael Mauduit. To which is added, a Copy of the Bill propofed for their Relief. 8vo. 1 s. Wilkie. 1772.

When the diffenting minifters lately applied to parliament, in order to obtain relief in the matter of fubfcription, Mr. Mauduit, who diftinguished himfelf by his zeal and activity in promoting their caufe, drew up the pamphlet before us, which, at firft, was privately diftributed to feveral members of the legislature, and to other perfons. It hath fince been publifhed, and contains a judicious, and fpirited defence of the application; the various objections to which are refuted with great ftrength of reafon and language. At the conclufion of the third edition, Mr. Mauduit hath added a complete vindication of the diffenting clergy from the charge of deifm, which had been wantonly and groundlessly thrown out against them. Part of what he hath faid upon this fubject we shall lay before our Readers.

But what are the Diffenters ? and what have been their doings, that they fhould fo often hear themfelves treated as deifts, or as enthufiafts? Their predeceffors of the last century all fubfcribed the articles, and are therefore beyond exception. And as to thofe of the prefent, let the writings of the late Lord Barrington and of Sir Richard

Ellis, let the commentaries of a Pierce, a Benfon, a Doddridge, a Lowman, and a Taylor, upon the different parts of the New Teltament; let the numerous fermons printed by others; let the learned Jabours of a Jones or a Lardner, the manly devotions of a Grove or a Watts, the comprehenfive views of a Prieftley, the judicious writings of a Farmer or a Bourn, the Works of an Amory, a Price or a Furneaux, with other members even of the prefent committee; let thefe all teftify, whether the diffenters are not capable of speaking the words of truth and foberness as well as other men.

And upon what ground are they to be charged with deifm? The number of diffenting minifters may not perhaps amount to more than a tenth part of the clergy of the church of England. Nor have we at our private academies the advantage of fuch libraries as are to be found at the two public univerfities: yet, as often as our common faith has been attacked, the diffenters have taken their full share in the defence of it. When Mr. Collins attempted to undermine the grounds and reafons of our faith, the various anfwers written by diffenters did not discover any want of zeal for our holy religion. And when Chandler the Bishop wrote his letter of thanks to Chandler the Prefbyter, for his learned defence of it, he furely would not have wished that his fellow-labourer in the common caufe, fhould have all his life-time remained fubject to imprisonment for preaching a fermon, and enforcing the duties of that gofpel, the truth of which he had fo ably maintained..

After this, when our religion was attacked by Mr. Tyndal, in his Christianity as old as the Creation, the diffenters were again as ready to appear in its vindication. We willingly acknowledge the merit of all: but may we not, without being chargeable with prefumption, afk, whofe anfwers were more read, or better approved, than thofe of Mr. Simon Brown and of Dr. Fofler ?

When Mr. Pope faid of this latter,

Let humble Fofter, if he will, excel

Ten metropolitans, in preaching well,

we know how to afcribe one half of this to his hatred of English bishops, and to give à great part of the rest to the warmth of his new-made friendship. But fhall Proteftant divines with the continuance of a law, by which this great defender of Chriflianity was liable at any time to be fent to jail, whom papifts themfelves have treated thus refpectfully!

I mention not the impudent attack of Woolfton, nor the more. fubtle one made by the author of Chriftianity not founded in Argument : in answering which, Benfon and Lardner again diftinguished themfelves. But let it not be told in the foreign languages, into which the works of Dr. Lardner have been tranflated, that the learned author of the Credibility of the Gospel Hiftory, was, by the laws of England, held all his life-time fubject to fines and imprisonment; and that, though the late archbishop, in the most friendly correfpondence, frequently acknowledged his merits, yet his fucceffors all wifh to maintain the force of a law, by which he might at any time have been fent to Newgate.

When the works of Lord Bolingbroke, that great apoftate from all the principles of his education as a Diffenter, a Proteftant, and a Chriftian,

a Chriftian, were published after his death; what divine is there in this kingdom who will not ftand forth and fay, that the works of Dr. Leland would not have done him honour? But Leland, though a Proteftant Diffenter, was happily removed out of the reach of penal laws, to which others are fubjected. So too was Duchal, in the latter part of his life, and fo was Abernethy; whofe fermons having been preached in Ireland, gained him honour and general esteem only, without the danger of imprisonment.

Under an accufation of fo reproachful a nature as that of Deism, the Diffenters hope, that they may appeal to their writings, without incurring the charge of vanity or prefumption. They with not to compare themselves with the numbers of great men in the establishment: but what is there to be found in the works of their departed friends, or what was there in their conduct, which could afford any the leaft ground to bring their Christianity into question? Some of thefe spent long laborious lives in the defence of our hoty religion". The reft were employed in preaching the duties of it to their feveral hearers and all these, we trust, lived and died in the faith of Chrift, though they would never fubfcribe their affent to any thing but his gospel.'

From this fpecimen, it will be feen how ably Mr. Mauduit hath fupported the cause which he has undertaken to defend; nor could lefs be expected from a writer whose talents have been so well approved on former occafions.

Art. 32. A Letter to the Proteftant Diffenting Minifters, who lately folicited Parliament for further Relief. 8vo. I S. Flexney. 1772.

This performance is of fo mixed a nature, that it is difficult to give an exact and proper defcription of its character. It is written in a manner remarkably foft and fpecious, and contains great profeffions of respect for the perfons to whom it is addreffed; but, at the fame time, a confiderable degree of feverity, is couched under this apparent gentleness and moderation. Infinuations are thrown out much to the prejudice of the Diffenting Ministers; infinuations that they indulge a dangerous latitude of fentiment, that they deny the fundamental doctrines of Chriftianity, that they have departed from Proteftantifm, and are influenced by motives of ambition. The defign of the letter is to fhew that they have acted improperly, in refpect to the matter, the manner, and the time of their application. In respect to the matter of the application, the Author infifts upon a variety of circumstances; but we fhall only transcribe fome paffages from what he hath advanced concerning the intent of the Act of Toleration.

In order, fays he, to account for your afking, and one branch of the legislature refufing, a requeft fo fingularly circumftanced, it may be neceffary to confider, what was meant by Toleration at the time of paffing the act? What the ftate meant by it then? What was the idea your predeceffors entertained of it then? and what is your idea of it now? This may explain the whole, and justify the fate of the bill, by convincing you of the impropriety of your ap plication in point of matter.

• Dr. Lardner was writing to near his eightieth year.

• The

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