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• The Protestant Diflenters did not, from the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign to the end of Queen Ann's, or somewhat later, profess to vary from the established church, in any of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. Protestantism supposes a belief of those fundamental doctrines. None but the most bigorred papists will. contend, that it is a new religion, invented at the time of the Re. formation. It is the Chriftian religion, purified from the errors, in which it had been unhappily involved by the church of Rome ; and the principal difference among Protestants has ever been, about the degree of purity, or the necessary degree of distance from that corrupt church. They were pretty well agreed among themselves about the reformation of doctrines. They differed among themselves about church government, forms of worship, and indifferent ceremonies.'

The toleration, granted to Protefiant Diffenters, could not be meant to extend farther, than to the points, in which they differed from the national church. It cannot, without absurdity, be supposed to comprehend the points, in which they agreed with her. If this were less than self evident, the subscription required would abundantly evidence it.

• The articles consist of doctrines maintained by the Christian church in general, of dactrines maintained by the Protestant church in general, of speculative points, agitated among Prorettants at the time of the Reformation, which were not intended by the compilers as credenda, and of positions controverted by the Diffenters from our nacional church. The last of these they were, upon the principles of toleration, permitted to except in their subscription. The rest they were not only supposed to approve, but actually have afsented to, in many of their writings.

They had intercourse with the great men, who drew up the Act of Toleration, and they were considerable enough, in a new goverament, to have had their scruples in fone measure consulted, 'had they entertained any about fundamental doctrines.'—

I gather from the known opinions of churchmen and diffenters, at the time of the Revolution, that the state did not mean to tolerate, and that your predecessors did not desire a toleration of, teachers of opinions, contrary to the supposed fundamental doctrines of the Christian church, of which all Protestants are members. The complaint was confined to the unreasonable restraints laid upon particular modes of worship, which retraints the legislature wisely removed, and treated Protestant Diflenters, as fellow-christians, in requiring them to subscribe, along with us, to the doctrines of Christianity, to join with us in declarations againit popery, and to acquiesce in thole articles of peace, which were meant to exempt all Protestants from perplexities of reasoning about the unsearchable counsels of God.

• So far, Gentlemen, there is every reason to apprehend, that the Act of Toleration war intended to continue us united with you as fellow christians, though it tolerated your dissent from us, as fellow-proteitants. It did not mean to tolerate different doctrines from those of the Christian church in general, as appears from the subscription required. Your predecessors did not mean to be tolerated in preaching any doctrine, but such as was then deemed Chrif tian, as appears from their writings and conduct; and to convince

you you fully, that you yourselves agree in this idea of the act, you confels, in the sixth reason of your late printed case, that the act coafines toleration to matters of DISCIPLINE only.'

In speaking to the manner of the application, the Author censures the Diffenting Ministers for the visits which they made to members of parliament, and for the letters which were written by some conftituents to their representatives; and he is equally offended with the time of it, on account of the attacks which had been made upon the church of England, by the Clergy's Petition, the Nullum Teme pus, and the Quakers bills.

Notwithstanding our letter-writer's zeal for fundamental do&trines, it is observable that he does not express himself concerning them with the ardor of a bigot, but with the coolnefs of a politician. The pains he hath taken to guard and soften all that he hath said, and his attempts to reconcile the principles of intolerance with the {pirit of moderation and candour, have, we think, betrayed him into several inconsistencies.

The composition of this letter is perspicuous and elegant, and it is probably the production of fome dignitary of our established church. Art. 33. An Answer to a Pamphlet, entitled, Reflections on the

Impropriety and Inexpediency of Lay-Subscription to the Thirty. nine Articles, in the University of Oxford. Addressed to the Author. 8vo. 6 d. Rivington.

Authority, we perceive, to be an argument of great weight with Come members of the university of Oxford ; for we can see little else that is urged in favour of Lay-Subscription by this superficial writer. Art. 34. The Works of the Reverend George Whitefield, M. A.

late of Pembroke College, Oxford, and Chaplain to the Right Hon. the Countess of Huntingdon. Containing all his Sermons and Tracts which have been already published: With 3

select Collection of Letters, written to his moit intimate Friends, and Persons of Distinction, in England, Scotland, Ireland, and America, from the Year 1734 to 1770, including the whole Period of his Miniltry. Also some other Pieces on important Subjects, never before printed; prepared by himfelf for the Press. To which is prefixed an Account of his Life, compiled from his original Papers and Letters. 8vo.. 6 Vols. 1. lis. Boards. Dilly.

The first, second, and third of these volumes contain Mr. Whitefield's literary correspondence, and furnith a number of particulars which will at once entertain and edify those who are not merely his readers but his followers also.

In the 4th volume we have his controversial and other tracts; but have observed no mark of distinction between those pieces which were formerly published, and those which are now fira printed. · Vols. 5 and 6 contain his sermons; in which we perceive very few of those peculiar flights of fancy, and strong touches of taberradle oratory, which so richly abounded in a late volume of his difcourses, noticed in our Review. They are, indeed, for the most part, fuch discourses as might be expected from a sober, sensible, and pious Calvinistical preacher. With respect to their authenticity, we (ce no room to queltion it, except in a single instance, viz.


Some time ago, we observed an advertisement, in the St. James's Chronicle, wherein it was asserted, that the last discourse in the 5th volume (of the collection now before us) was not Mr. W.'s, but taken verbatim from a sermon of the celebrated Dr. Doddridge's, entitled, The Care of the Soul, the one thing needful. Surprised at this charge against the anonymous editor, (which has never, to our knowledge, been answered,) we made an enquiry concerning the fact, and have found it to be really as the advertiser has set forth : and we have been further informed, that the same sermon was printed by Mr. W. himself, as his own, about 20 years ago; which, if true; may serve to exculpate the editor, who might be ignorant of Doctor D.'s prior claim to the property of this discourse ; but, in that case, what are we to think of the conduct of Mr. Whitefield, whom we have always regarded as an honest enthusiait? honesty and enthufiasm being by no means incompatible.

The life of Mr. Whitefield, though mentioned in the title-pages of these volumes, as prefixed to them, does not at present + accompany them, but is advertised to come out as a separate publication.

S E RM N S. 1. Christ's Riches, -at St. Helen's, York, May 10, 1772. By Tho.

mas Adam, Rector of Wintringham, Lincolnshire. 6 d. Ri.

vington, &c. II. Occasioned by the late Disturbances in the North of Ireland,

preached before the Judges of Allize in the Cathedral Church of Armagh, April 12, 1772. By Hugh Hamilton, D.D. F.R.S.

Dean of Armagh. 6 d. Nourse. III. Preached to a Congregation of Protestant Dissenters, at Crutched

Friars ; occafioned by a Denial of Relief, respecting Subscription to the Articles of the Church of England. By E. Radcliff. 8vo. 6 d. Domville. 1772.


Letter from the Rev. Author of Real Improvements in Agriculture

mentions a very material error of the press, by the omission of two words in p. 58, where the Author speaks of the advantages of ox-draughts. As this passage occurs in our extracts from that performance, in the present month's Review, our Readers are desired to mark the correction, as follows :-P. 24, line 13, for "

oxen, properly used, will pay for their work, read “will pay for their keeping by work," &c.

We have never seen the treatise on Geodesia ş, referred to biy Ceftrienfis, nor ever heard of it but by means of this Correspondent's letter; which informs that it was published latt summer at Chester.

7 For the Reviewers acknowledgment of a Letter from Mr. Waldo, see the laft page of our Appendix to Rev. vol. xlvi. published at the same time with our Number for the present month.

Does it not seem extraordinary that the Editor of a work of this kind should fecret his name from the knowledge of the public ?

+ It has been published since this article was written, in one volume, 8vo.

$By a Mr. Burns of Tarperly.

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For AUGUST, 1772.



Art. I. Political Elays concerning the present State of the British Em

pire. 4to.

il. I s.

UR general ideas of the merit of this work, together

with a specimen of the Author's sentiments concerning liberty, and of his manner of writing, were given in the Review for June laft. We now proceed to his third Essay; in which he treats of agriculture, under the following heads : 1. Genesal remarks. 2. Independency. 3. Population. 4. Riches. 5. Present ftate of the practice. 6. Poflible and probable improvements. In this effay the Author writes like a person very intimately acquainted with his subject; and this part of his work has certainly great merit, and well deserves the artention both of the practical cultivator and speculative politician.

In the third section our Author discufles the important and difficult question concerning the population resulting from the division of property: he contrasts the best and most plausible arguments on both sides the question, particularly those of Mr. Wallace and Sir James Steuart; and concludes this subject in the following manner :

'In Mr. Wallace's Disertation on the Numbers of Mankind, the great importance of a minute division of landed property, is fully proved by the most impartial and judicious review of the political economy of the ancient and most populous nations. Population is a most undoubted consequence of such a division, and there can be no doubt but if land in Great Britain was more divided, she would be proportionably more populous. More food would be produced, with the attendant confequences mentioned by Mr. Wallace'in the quotation inserted above, for large proprietors have their attention called off from their lands by the luxurious refinements of great cities : waite tracts are not so likely to be broken up and cultivated under the auspices of such, as under the smaller landlord, who feels the necess sity of making his foil produce to the utmoic ; nor thould we forget that in general it is imposible land thould be fo well cultivated by tenants as by the owners themselves. View the vast tracts of un. cultivated land, which are such a disgrace to this country; they will all be found to belong to confiderable proprietors. Enquire the reasons of their lying wafte, you will be told that it will not answer to cultivate them, farmers will hire them for nothing but sheepwalks ;- but raise a little farm-house, with a few necessary buildings, and give the property of twenty acres of the most barren land to a ftout labourer; do you imagine that the nominal barrenness of the soil will deter him from cultivating it? By no means: knowing how fecure he is to reap the profit of his industry, he will employ himself and his family vigorously in the raising some product or other suitable to the soil, and in a few years render his little property an ample fund for the maintenance of a family.~This argument, it must however be allowed, will by no means hold good when applied to tenanıs--they can only occupy such lands in large, but cannot afford to pay rent for it in small quantities.- - And this does not proceed from any probable want of profit, but from the want of that eager industry which actuates a man who labours on his own property ; and having but a small stock, is necesitated to make the utmost of it.



« The three British islands are supposed to contain about 72,000,000 of acres. It is very difficult to discover what proportion of the surface is occupied by rivers, lakes, rocks, roads, houses, and tracts, impossible to cultivate ; but there is great reason to think the quantity not so considerable as some have imagined: ten millions of acres I should apprehend a large allowance ; for that is a tract above half as large as the whole island of Ireland. There remains then 60,000,oco of acres to cultivate. Suppose this was divided into freeholds of twenty acres each, it forms 3,000,000 of fuch, and of course as many families, which, reckoning fix to a family, would amount to 18,000,000 of people, but from this number 1,000,000 may be deducted for those of the freeholders who may not marry; though I am well persuaded the number of such would be exceeding small. To these 17,000,000 we must add the number of manufacturers neceffary for fupplying the total with cloathing, implements, &c. and likewise the number employed in public butiness ; this calculation must be very indefinite ; we cannot judge by the present proportion, because fuch numbers are employed for exportation, but by calling the total 25,000,c00, no exaggeration need be feared. For this number there would be just two acres and an half head, a quantity highly fufficient, and especially if we consider that no allowance is made for filh ; the coasts of these islands are so prodigiously well supplied, and the lakes and rivers are fo abounding with them, that some millions of people might undoubtedly be fed by them. Ccal pits and hedge rows would supply firing.-The latter at present maintain the farmers in fuel, in farms of less than twenty acres. Even a ditch need not be loft; I have more than once seen a Noping banked one, and yielding a middling crop of potatoes, which they would all do, that had no standing water in them, which none ought to have: the rotten wood which falls in them, and the rich soil which is washed into them, form a compost which suits that vegetable ; and the shade of the row, and the trees which grow


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