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to the plain expressions of scripture, is the true sense of scripture. For it is the intended distinguishing excellence of the facred books, that they are plain. Whether our Saviour had an existence in heaven with God the Father before his incarnation, I think one might fafely reft the decision of this question with a Turk or an Indian, or any other plain, honest, upright person in the world, who cculd read our New Testament, Farther, when I have been contemplating this subject, it has always appeared to me very strange, that fuch a magnificent apparatus should be initituted by heaven to usher into the world one who was nothing more than a man' ! Angels after angels wing their flight to Bethlehem, to indicate the birth of a man! - A most magnificent heavenly choir, consisting of a multitude of angels, chearing the midnight hours with repeating, Glery to God in the highest! Good will towards men! deputed to our world, and chanting these rapturous strains to celebrate the birth of a man! Is it not something incongruous and disparate, that heaven should display all this splendid scenery, and lavith all this pomp and pageantry to introduce into our world a mere, ordinary, common man, distinguished in no one natural endowment from any other of the fpccies ? But fuppofing the being introduced with all this eclat, to be the same who was in the beginning with God, and had glory with the Father before the world was, is not the decoration and magnificencehighly pertinent and honourable ; and is it not with the greatest propriety that multitudes of the heavenly host, on this GREAT occasion,-should conjoin with harmonious voices and accordant hearts, in applauding and solemnizing a condescension and benevolence, illustrious and great beyond all example! Finally, whenever I have ferioully revolved and discuffed the merits of the Socinian scheme, -it hath always appeared strange and extravagant to me so fuppose, that a mere MAN fhould have all power in HEAVEN, as well as earth, immediately given him—that a mere man should instantly have a name given him above every name, and be exalted to an eminence infinitely superior to any that obtains even in heaven !'~Some of our Readers will, perhaps, think that there is more of declamation than of argument in this Writer's insisting so much upon the external apparatus and pomp with which the great event he alludes to was introduced. But we proceed :
The two following differtations are entitled, Free and devout Thoughts on Coloff. i. 15-19. and i Cor. xv. 24-28. because they are designed, not only to enquire into the sense and meaning of these passages of holy writ as compared with others, but also to treat them in a practical manner; and therefore the writer expresies his hope, that those Chriftians who disapprove the fpeculative opinions, will yet be pleased with the deuctional spirit of thele treaiifes,'
The fifth and last dissertation considers the causes which probably conspired to produce our Saviour's agony. It was, we are told composed about fourteen years ago, and the Author, upon reviewing it, fees no reason to depart from the theory and sentiments it advances. • The reason, he adds, which originally induced me to write it, was my dissatisfaction with the schemes which gloomy and systematic divines have devised to account for our Lord's agony.' Why should this Writer pronounce upon persons who give an explication of this subject different from that which he embraces, as gloomy divines? No doubt but numbers who have espoused a scheme which be dislikes, have nevertheless been men of a very chearful spirit. It is sufficiently verified by experience, that melancholy accounts and views, however displeasing, may yet be truth and fact : and certainly distress and agony must always be melancholy, whatever its cause. Whether our Author's explication of this subject is fully adequate to the scripture account, or whether it is more satisfactory than others which have been given, we shall leave his readers to judge and determine for themselves.
Art. III. Esays and Observations, physical and literary. Read be.
fore the Philosophical Society in Edinburgh, and published by them. Vol. III. Edinburgh printed, and sold in London by 8vo. Cadell. 7 s. 6d. Boards. 1771. HE first article in the third * volume of these valuable essays
and observations, contains some ingenious experiments on Marles, by the late Dr. Ainslie.- From these experiments it appears, that marle does not contain the smallest proportion of alkaline falt : that it consists of two parts, poffeffed of very opposite qualities; the one clay, or a mixture of clay and fand; the other, soluble in acids, convertible by calcination into quick-lime, and consequently a real calcarious earth, differing in no respect from the calcarious earth of Jime.stone and the shells of animals : that marles have many properties in common with lime-stone ; and that they differ from other calcarious fubstances only by containing a certain proportion of clay. For the experiments and observations, we must refer our Readers to the effay itself.
In the second article, Mr. George Clark considers the advantages of Shallow Ploughing ; and gives the general characters of the soil in the counties of Lincoln and Norfolk, where he saw this method of ploughing successfully practised. Lord Kaims, in the succeeding article, makes some observations
* For an account of the institution of this Society, and of their first vol. of Essays, &c. see Rev. vol. xi. p. 169. See also an account of the second vol. in our Review, vol. xv. p. 381,
Read before the Philosophical Society in Edinburgh. 95 on this subject ; and is of opinion, that the superior advantages of lhallow ploughing, are not yet sufficiently ascertained. This, is a point which can only be determined by an extensive experience.
The different theories of Evaporation are confidered by Lord Kaims, in the fourth article. His Lordship adopts and enlarges upon the following doctrine : that evaporation is a species of solution, and that in this process water is chemically dissolved in air.—There is one difficulty, however, that attends this theory, and which is mentioned by his Lordship at the end of the article.
· Neither of these causes will account for the evaporation of water in vacuo. Elective attraction will not answer when there is no incumbent air to attract the water, Nor will mutual repulfion answer ; because, in evaporation in vacuo, there is not supposed to be any extraordinary heat. The best way to account for this supposcd evaporation, at least the easiest, is to deny the fact, which may be done bona fide, for I have not heard of any experiment that verifies it. i shall venture only a fingle hint, that an elective attraction betwixt glass and water, Tupposing the fact to be ascertained, will fairly account for the phenomenon.'
The fact which his Lordship denies, is experimentally proved by Dr. Hamilton, in the second edition of his Philosophical Ejays. His Lordship's hint, to account for the phenomenon, should it prove to be a fact, is not the most philosophical ; i. e. an elective attraction betwixt glass and water. It is well known to every chemist, that the attraction by which solution is performed, can only take place in consequence of the folvend and' menftruum coming into contact; and it is certain, that there can be no chemical attraction betwixt the glass receiver and the water under it. This subject has already been enlarged upon in the former parts of our Review *. Art. IV. Letter from M. Turnbuli to Archibald Menzies, of Kil
dares, Esq; dated from Delphos, concerning Italy, the alledged Effects of the Bite of the Tarantula, and Grecian Antiquities. In the first part of this letter, our Author points out some of the causes of depopulation in the Italian states. With respect to the bite of the Tarantula, he says, “ I had every advantage I could wish for to inform myself of this affair, and from men of discernment, who had taken some pains in visiting and examining the sick said to be bit; among the rest, the archbishop of Otranto, of the noble family of the Carraccioli of Naples. This learned prelate assured me, from what he had feen of it, that it was a ridiculous vulgar notion, full of imposture and prejudice, and entirely void of foundation. He concurred,
Vol. xxxv. p. 379, and vol. xl. p. 392. and vol. xlvi. p. 176.
indeed, in opinion, with most men of judgement in those parts, that tbele difeales proceeded from other causes. This seemed the more probable, and even clear to me, having had mumberless opportunities of treating fuch diseases in hot countries aş are afcribed to this bite, and I alwavs found that they were caufed by the heats of the mid-day fun. Though Malta is Father a wholesome climate, yer the summer-heats cause very fatal fevers there, as well as other diseases; among the rest, a termmus, or tense stiffneis of the whole body, to such a violent degree, that it. generally proves mortal in twenty-four hours, if the perfon affected is not relieved by a plentiful sweat. This, though rarely, happens also in Otranto, and other places, and is looked upon as an undeniable proof of the bite of the taran, tula; but, in Malta, they ascribe it to the being exposed to too great heats ; for there a contrary prejudice runs so high, that they deny tbe venomous power of all animals, fince the time of St. Paul's shaking the serpent from his hand into the fire, when he was cast away on that island. As to what has been believed, that the bite of the tarantula causes a lethargic drousiness, from which the person affected cannot be roused but by such mufiç as strikes his fancy and pleases : this is not so; for the fick person is always entreated and folicited to use this exercise; and, as a further incitement, they strike up such airs as the patient likes, or which, on trial, they find strike his fancy. The belief of such symptoms arises from the practices of tricking vagabonds, called tarantulifti, who go about the kingdom of Naples pretending to be bit by the tarantula. They always affect these symptoms, and pretend to be roused by certain airs, to which they dance in a strange extravagant manner. It is probable that you saw some of them at Naples. Perhaps this method of cure might succeed in some particular cales, instead of oiher gymnastic methods generally ordered.'
A fort account of Corsu, Patras, Delphos, and Parnassus, is all that relates to the Grecian antiquities, which make part of this letter. Art. V. Letter from Dr. Austin, Physician, to Dr. Monro, jutt
. on the Ejjeft' of EleEtricity in removing Objiructions of the Menses. Dated Edinburgh, 1764.
The history here related is a proof of the singular and immediate good effects of the electrical shock, in certain female complaints. A few judicious remarks are added to this history, by the late Dr. David Clerk. Art. VII, I be Effe7s of a very large Dose of Opium, by the late
Dr. David Clerk, Phyfaian in Edinburgh. The dose was one drachm of solid opium, which would probably have proved fatal, had not a repeated and long-continued vomiting been procured, soon after the bad effects of the opium were discovered.
Art. VIII. Letter from Dr. B. Franklin to D. Hume, Esq; on
the Method of securing Houses from the Effects of Lightning.
The method directed by Dr. Franklin, is so plain and distinct, that no one can be at a loss in executing it. The Dr. has likewise added sufficient proof of its efficacy. Art. IX. Method of determining the Strength and Direction of
Earthquakes, by the late Rev. Dr. Wark, Mlinister at Had. dington.
A vessel, which is the portion of a sphere of three or four feet diameter, is set on a ground floor, and powdered over on the inside by a barber's puff; a sufficient quantity of water is. then gently poured into it. Upon the imallest tremor, the water rising in the vessel, will thew both the heighth and direction of the shock by washing down the powder.--As water speedily evaporates, Dr. Wark proposed an improvement of this method, by using mercury instead of water, and covering the vessel with a plate of glass, to keep it free from dust. Art. X. An Account of the Indian Pink, by A'exander Garden,
M. D. in Charlestown, South Carolina, Member of the Royal Society at Upal, and of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh.
Dr. Garden has given the Indian Pink-root, in hundreds of cases, and never found it do much service, except it proved gently purgative: it especially answers, he says, in continued or remitting low worin fevers, in which a decoction is given with the addition of some of the serpentaria.— It is, in general, safer to give it in large dofes than in small; for, from the latter more frequently the giddiness, dimness of the fight, and convulfions, &c. follow; whereas, from large doses, I have not known any other effect than its proving emetic or violently cathartic. To a child of two years of age, who had been taking ten grains of the root twice a day, without having any other effect than making her dull and giddy, I prescribed 22 grains morning and evening, which purged her briskly, and brought away five large worms. After some months an increated dose had the same good effects. I prefer the root to the other parts of the plant, of which, when properly dried, I give from 12 to 60 or 70 grains in substance. In infusion, ic
may be given to the quantity of 2, 3, or 4 drachms twice a day. Where it does not gently move the body, and produces the nervous symptoms, a purgative will soon remove these effects. There is added an engraving, and a botanical description of the plant. Art. XI. An Account of a very infectious Dilemper prevailing
in many Places, by Ebenezer Gilchrijl, M. D, Dr. Gilchritt observes, that this infectious distemper, is of the venereal kind ; that it chiefly infetts the lowest class of people; and that want of cleanliness is the great source of its Rev. Aug. 1772