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business more in the way. For who would let his wife go round from street to street to other men's houses, and indeed to all the poorer cottages, for the sake of visiting the brethren? Who will willingly allow her to be taken from his side for nocturnal meetings, if her duty be so? 5 Who in short will bear without anxiety her absence all night for the ceremonial of Easter? Who will let her go without suspicion of his own to that Lord's Supper which they defame? Who will suffer her to creep into a prison to kiss a martyr's bonds? or indeed to meet one of the 10 brethren for the kiss? to offer water for the feet of the saints? to seize [for them] from her food or from her cup, to long for them, to keep them in mind? If a brother on a journey come, what welcome is there for him in an alien house? If there is a case for liberality, the granary and the larder are shut up. . . . The handmaid of God dwells with alien labours, and amongst them she will be persecuted with the odour of incense at all the festivals of demons, all the ceremonials of kings, the beginning of the year, the beginning of the month. She will come forth 20 too from a laurelled gateway hung with lanterns as from some new abode of public lusts. She will dine with her husband in clubs, often in taverns, and sometimes she will minister to the unjust, who was used to minister to saints; and will she not recognize in this a sentence that carries 25 her damnation, as she attends on those whom she was to judge hereafter?

The Misdeeds of Praxeas.


FOR Praxeas it was who first imported from Asia to Rome this kind of perversity-a man in other ways unquiet, and moreover puffed up with pride of confessorship merely 30 on the strength of a short annoyance of imprisonment without further hardship; whereas even though he had given his body to be burned, he would have gained

nihil profecisset, dilectionem dei non habens, cuius charismata quoque expugnavit. Nam idem tunc episcopum Romanum agnoscentem iam prophetias Montani, Priscae, Maximillae, et ex ea agnitione pacem ecclesiis Asiae et 5 Phrygiae inferentem, falsa de ipsis prophetis et ecclesiis eorum adseverando et praecessorum eius auctoritates defendendo coegit et literas pacis revocare iam emissas et a proposito recipiendorum charismatum concessare. Ita duo negotia diaboli Praxeas Romae procuravit, prophe10 tiam expulit et haeresim intulit, paracletum fugavit et patrem crucifixit.


ID. Adv. Prax. I.

ITAQUE pro cuiusque personae conditione ac disposi tione, etiam aetate, cunctatio baptismi utilior est, praecipue tamen circa parvulos. Quid enim necesse est, sponsores 15 etiam periculo ingeri, qui et ipsi per mortalitatem destituere promissiones suas possunt et proventu malae indolis falli ? Ait quidem dominus: Nolite illos prohibere ad me venire. Veniant ergo, dum adolescunt; veniant, dum discunt, dum quo veniant docentur; fiant Christiani, quum Christum 20 nosse potuerint. Quid festinat innocens aetas ad remissionem peccatorum? Cautius agetur in secularibus, ut cui substantia terrena non creditur, divina credatur.

ID. De Baptismo, 18.


Τοιαῦτα ὁ γόης τολμήσας συνεστήσατο διδασκαλεῖον κατὰ τῆς ἐκκλησίας οὕτως διδάξας, καὶ πρῶτος τὰ πρὸς


nothing by it, not having the love of God, whose gifts too he has fought against. For he it was again, who when the then bishop of Rome was ready to recognize the prophecies of Montanus, Prisca and Maximilla, and in consequence of that recognition to give his peace to the Churches of Asia and Phrygia-he by making false statements about the prophets themselves and their Churches, and by urging the authority of the bishop's predecessors, obliged him to recall the letters of peace he had already sent out, and to give up his purpose of acknowledging the gifts. Thus 10 Praxeas managed two of the devil's businesses in Rome: he drove out prophecy and brought in heresy; he put to flight the Comforter and crucified the Father.

Infant Baptism.

THEREFORE according to the circumstances and temper and even age of each is the delay of baptism more profit- 15 able, yet especially in the case of little children. For where is the need of involving sponsors also in danger? They too through mortality may fail to perform their promises, or may be deceived by the growth of an evil disposition. The Lord says, indeed, Forbid them 20 not to come unto me. Let them come then when they are grown up; let them come when they have learned, when they are taught where they are coming; let them become Christians when they are able to know Christ. Why does an age which is innocent hasten to the remission of sins? 25 There will be more caution used in worldly matters, so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine.

Misdeeds of Callistus.

THE impostor had the impudence to adopt opinions of this kind, setting up a school against the Church, and 30



τὰς ἡδονὰς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις συγχωρεῖν ἐπενόησε, λέγων πᾶσιν ὑπ ̓ αὐτοῦ ἀφίεσθαι ἁμαρτίας. . . . οὗτος ἐδογμάτισεν ὅπως εἰ ἐπίσκοπος ἁμάρτοι τι, εἰ καὶ πρὸς θάνατον, μὴ δεῖν κατατίθεσθαι. ἐπὶ τούτου ἤρξαντο ἐπίσκοποι 5 καὶ πρεσβύτεροι καὶ διάκονοι δίγαμοι καὶ τρίγαμοι καθίστασθαι εἰς κλήρους· εἰ δὲ καί τις ἐν κλήρῳ ὢν γαμοίη, μένειν τὸν τοιοῦτον ἐν τῷ κλήρῳ ὡς μὴ ἡμαρ τηκότα. . . . καὶ γὰρ καὶ γυναιξὶν ἐπέτρεψεν, †εἰ ἄνανδροι εἶεν καὶ ἡλικίᾳ γε ἐκκαίοιντο ἀναξίᾳ, ἢ ἑαυτῶν ἀξίαν μὴ το βούλοιντο καθαιρεῖν διὰ τὸ νομίμως γαμηθῆναι †, ἔχειν ἕνα ὃν ἂν αἱρήσωνται σύγκοιτον, εἴτε οἰκέτην, εἴτε ἐλεύθερον, καὶ τοῦτον κρίνειν ἀντὶ ἀνδρὸς μὴ νόμῳ γεγαμημένην. . . . καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις τοῖς τολμήμασιν ἑαυτοὺς οἱ ἀπηρυθριασ μένοι καθολικὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἀποκαλεῖν ἐπιχειροῦσι, καί 15 τινες νομίζοντες εὖ πράττειν συντρέχουσιν αὐτοῖς. ἐπὶ τούτου πρώτως τετόλμηται δεύτερον αὐτοῖς βάπτισμα. HIPPOLYTUS, Ref. Omn. Haer. ix. 12.1


Εν τούτῳ καὶ ̓Αμβρόσιος τὰ τῆς Οὐαλεντίνου φρονῶν αἱρέσεως, πρὸς τῆς ὑπὸ 'Ωριγένους πρεσβευομένης ἀληθείας ἐλεγχθείς, καὶ ὡς ἂν ὑπὸ φωτὸς καταυγασθεὶς τὴν 10 διάνοιαν, τῷ τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ὀρθοδοξίας προστίθεται λόγῳ· καὶ ἄλλοι δὲ πλείους τῶν ἀπὸ παιδείας, τῆς περὶ τὸν ̓Ωριγένην φήμης πανταχόσε βοωμένης, ᾔεσαν ὡς αὐτόν, πεῖραν τῆς ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς λόγοις ἱκανότητος τἀνδρὸς ληψόμενοι· μυρίοι δὲ τῶν αἱρετικῶν, φιλοσόφων τε τῶν 25 μάλιστα ἐπιφανῶν οὐκ ὀλίγοι, διὰ σπουδῆς αὐτῷ προσεἶχον, πρὸς τοῖς θείοις καὶ τὰ τῆς ἔξωθεν φιλοσοφίας πρὸς αὐτοῦ παιδευόμενοι. εἰσῆγέ τε γὰρ ὅσους εὐφυῶς ἔχοντας ἑώρα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ φιλόσοφα μαθήματα, γεωμετρίαν καὶ ἀριθμητικὴν καὶ τὰ ἄλλα προπαιδεύματα παρα

1 Liberian Catalogue. Eo tempora Pontianus episcopus et Yppolitus presbyter exoles sunt deportati in Sardinia, in insula nociva, Severo et Quintiano cons. In eadem insula discinctus est iiii Kl. Octobr, et loco eius ordinatus est Antheros xi Kl. Dec. cons. 55.

teaching accordingly; and he was the first who found out the device of yielding to men in their sensual pleasures by saying that all men had their sins forgiven by him. . . . He it was who laid it down, that if a bishop committed a sin, though it were a sin unto death, he ought not to be 5 deposed. In his time began twice married and thrice married men to be appointed to clerical office as bishops. elders and deacons; and if one married who was in the clergy, such a one remained in the clergy as if he had not sinned [quoting Rom. xiv. 4, Matt. xiii. 29, and the clean 10 and unclean in the ark]. For he even allowed women, if they were unmarried and inflamed with love unworthy of their age, or did not wish to forfeit their rank for the sake of a legal marriage, to have one whomsoever they chose for a companion, whether he were slave or free, and 15 though not legally married to him to count him for a husband. . . . And on the strength of these audacious doings the shameless fellows endeavour to call themselves a Catholic Church; and some thinking they are faring well agree with them. In his time a second baptism was first 20 impudently attempted by them.

Origen's conception of education.

ABOUT this time Ambrose, who held the heresy of Valentinus, was convinced by Origen's presentation of the truth, and, as if his mind were illumined by light, he accepted the orthodox doctrine of the Church. Many other 25 lovers of learning also, drawn by the fame of Origen, which resounded everywhere, came to him to make trial of his skill in sacred literature. And a great many heretics and not a few of the most distinguished philosophers studied under him diligently, receiving instruction from 30 him not only in divine things, but also in secular philosophy. For when he perceived that any persons had superior intelligence he instructed them also in philosophic studies-in geometry, arithmetic and other pre

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