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earth have found the truth, for they know God the maker and creator in His only Son and Holy Spirit, and other god than Him they worship not. For they have the commands of the Lord Himself, even Jesus Christ, written in their hearts, and these they keep, looking for the resur- 5 rection of the dead and life of the age to come. They commit no adultery or fornication, they bear no false witness, they covet not other men's goods, they honour father and mother and love their neighbours, they judge righteously, and whatsoever things they would not have 10 done to themselves they do not to another. They exhort them that do them wrong, and make them friendly to them. selves, they strive to do good to their enemies, are meek and moderate, restrain themselves from all unlawful intercourse and from all uncleanness, they despise not a widow, 15 and an orphan they grieve not. He that hath giveth help ungrudgingly to him that hath not. If they see a stranger, they bring him under their roof, and rejoice over him as over a brother of their own, for they call not themselves brethren after the flesh, but after the spirit. They are 20 ready to give up their lives for Christ, for they keep His commands firmly, living holily and righteously as the Lord God commanded them, giving thanks to Him every hour at all meat and drink and all other good things.

Heathenism the work of demons. What does this mean? In our case, though we profess 25 to do no man wrong and to reject these godless opinions, you do not examine charges, but are driven by unreason. ing passion and the scourge of evil demons to punish us without investigation or consideration. For the truth


ειρήσεται γάρ ταληθές· έπει το παλαιον δαίμονες

: φαύλοι, επιφανείας ποιησάμενοι, και γυναίκας εμοίχευσαν και παίδας διέφθειραν και φόβητρα ανθρώποις έδειξαν, ως καταπλαγήναι τους οι λόγω τάς γινομένας πράξεις ουκ έκρινον, αλλά δέει συνηρπασμένοι και μη επιστάμενοι, δαίμονας είναι φαύλους, θεούς προσωνόμαζον και ονόματι έκαστον προσηγόρευον, όπερ έκαστος αυτών των δαιμόνων ετίθετο. ότε δε Σωκράτης λόγω αληθεί και

εξεταστικώς ταύτα εις φανερόν επειράτο φέρειν και απΤο άγειν των δαιμόνων τους ανθρώπους, και αυτοί οι δαίμονες

διά των χαιρόντων τη κακία ανθρώπων ενήργησαν ως άθεον και ασεβή αποκτείναι, λέγοντες καινά είσφέρειν αυτόν δαιμόνια. και ομοίως έφ' ημών το αυτό ενερ

γουσιν· ου γάρ μόνον εν "Ελλησι διά Σωκράτους υπό 15 λόγου ελέγχθη ταύτα, αλλά και έν βαρβάροις υπ' αυτού

του λόγου μορφωθέντος και ανθρώπου γενομένου και 'Ιησού Χριστού κληθέντος, ο πεισθέντες ημείς τους ταύτα πράξαντας δαίμονας ου μόνον μη ορθους είναι

φαμεν, αλλά κακούς και ανοσίους δαίμονας, οι ουδέ τοις 20 αρετήν ποθούσιν ανθρώποις τας πράξεις ομοίας έχoυσι.

JUSTIN, Apol. i. 5.


"Ινα δε μή τινες άλογισταίνοντες εις αποτροπής των δεδιδαγμένων υφ' ημών είπωσι, προ ετών εκατόν πεντήκοντα γεγεννήσθαι τον Χριστόν λέγειν ημάς επί Κυ

ρηνίου, δεδιδαχέναι δε ά φαμεν διδάξαι αυτόν ύστερον 25 χρόνοις επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου, και επικαλωσιν, ώς ανευθύ

νων όντων των προγεγενημένων πάντων ανθρώπων, φθάσαντες την απορίαν λυσώμεθα. τον Χριστόν πρωτότοκον του Θεού είναι εδιδάχθημεν και προεμηνύσαμεν λόγον

όντα, ου πάν γένος ανθρώπων μετέσχε. και οι μετά 30 λόγου βιώσαντες Χριστιανοί εισι, καν άθεοι ένομίσθησαν, shall be told. It is because evil demons of old made apparitions, and defiled women and corrupted boys, and showed to men such horrors that those were struck with terror who did not judge by reason the acts performed, but were carried away by fear, and in their ignorance 5 that these were evil demons called them gods, and addressed each of them by name according as each demon styled himself. But when Socrates essayed by true reason and examination to bring these things to the light and lead men away from the demons, then these same demons io by means of men who rejoiced in iniquity caused them to slay him as a godless and impious man, saying that he was introducing new divinities—and the same likewise they cause to be done in our case. For not among the Greeks alone were these things through Socrates con- 15 demned by reason, but among the barbarians also by the Reason himself taking shape and made man and called Jesus Christ; and at His persuasion we hold that the demons who did these things are not only not good, but wicked and unholy demons, whose acts are not like even 20 those of men who long for virtue.

Christianity before Christ. But that some may not in reply to our teachings unreasonably say that according to us Christ was born 150 years ago in the time of Cyrenius, and taught what we assert Him to have taught at a later time under Pontius 25 Pilate, and so object that all men who lived before Him were irresponsible, let us solve the difficulty in advance. We were taught that Christ is the firstborn of God, and we have already signified that He is the reason, in which every race of men did share. Thus those who lived with 30 reason are Christians even if they were counted godless,


οδον έν "Ελλησι μεν Σωκράτης και Ηράκλειτος και οι όμοιοι αυτοίς, εν βαρβάροις δε 'Αβραάμ και 'Ανανίας και 'Αζαρίας και Μισαήλ και Ηλίας και άλλοι πολλοί, ών τας πράξεις ή τα ονόματα καταλέγειν μακρόν είναι 5 επιστάμενοι τανύν παραιτούμεθα.

Ibid. i. 46.



Ον τρόπον δε και ανεθήκαμεν εαυτούς τω Θεώ καινοποιηθέντες διά του Χριστού, εξηγήσόμεθα, όπως μη τούτο παραλιπόντες δόξωμεν πονηρεύειν τι εν τη εξηγήσει.

όσοι αν πεισθώσι και πιστεύωσιν αληθή ταύτα τα υφ' ιο ημών διδασκόμενα και λεγόμενα είναι, και βιούν ούτως

δύνασθαι υπισχνώνται, ευχεσθαί τε και αιτείν νηστεύοντες παρά του Θεού των προημαρτημένων άφεσιν διδάσκονται, ήμών συνευχομένων και συννηστευόντων αυτοίς.

έπειτα άγονται υφ' ημών ένθα ύδωρ εστί, και τρόπον 15 αναγεννήσεως, δν και ημείς αυτοί ανεγεννήθημεν, ανα

γεννώνται επ' ονόματος γάρ του πατρός των όλων και δεσπότου Θεού και του σωτήρος ημών Ιησού Χριστού και Πνεύματος αγίου το εν τω ύδατι τότε λουτρόν ποιούνται.

και γάρ ο Χριστός είπεν: "Αν μη αναγεννηθήτε, ου μη 20 εισέλθητε εις την βασιλείαν των ουρανών. ότι δε και

αδύνατον είς τάς μήτρας των τεκουσών τους άπαξ γεννωμένους εμβήναι, φανερόν πασίν έστι. ... καλείται δε τούτο το λουτρόν φωτισμός, ως φωτιζομένων την διάνοιαν των ταύτα μανθανόντων. ..

Ημείς δε μετά το ούτως λουσαι τον πεπεισμένος και συγκατατεθειμένον επί τους λεγομένους αδελφούς άγομεν, ένθα συνηγμένοι εισί, κοινάς ευχάς ποιησόμενοι υπέρ τε εαυτών και του φωτισθέντος και άλλων πανταχού πάντων

εντόνως, όπως καταξιωθώμεν τα αληθή μαθόντες και δι' 30 έργων αγαθοί πολιτευται και φύλακες των εντεταλμένων


as of the Greeks, Socrates, Heraclitus and others like them, and of the barbarians Abraham, Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael, Elijah, and many others, whose names and acts we decline to set down here, knowing that they would be long to tell


Christian Worship. But I will explain how we also dedicated ourselves to God when we were made new through Christ, lest by passing it over I should seem in any way unfair in my explanation. As many as are persuaded and believe that the things are true which are taught by us and said to be 10 true, and promise that they can live accordingly-they are taught to pray and to ask of God with fasting forgiveness of their former sins, and we pray and fast together with them. Then they are brought by us to a place where there is water, and born again with a new birth 15 even as we ourselves were born again. For in the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit do they then receive the washing in water. For Christ said, Except ye be born again, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of 20 heaven. But that it is impossible for those once born to enter into the wombs of their mothers is manifest to all. ... And this washing is called Enlightenment, because those who learn these things have their understanding enlightened.

But after having thus washed him that is persuaded and has given his assent, we bring him to where the brethren as they are called are gathered together, to make earnest prayers in common for ourselves and for the newly enlightened, and for all others everywhere, that 30 we may be counted worthy after we have learned the truth, by our works also to be found right livers and keepers of the commandments, that we may be saved with


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