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first, that she was taught and made wise by the example of Lambert Simnel, how she did admit of any counterfeit stuff; though even in that, she said, she was not fully satisfied. She pretended at the first, and that was ever in the presence of others, to pose him and sist him, thereby to try whether 5 he were indeed the very duke of York or no. But seeming to receive full satisfaction by his answers, she then feigned herself to be transported with a kind of astonishment, mixt of joy and wonder, at his miraculous deliverance; receiving him as if he were risen from death to life: and inferring, 10 that God, who had in such wonderful manner preserved him from death, did likewise reserve him for some great and prosperous fortune. As for his dismission out of France, they interpreted it not, as if he were detected or neglected for a counterfeit deceiver; but contrariwise that it 15 did shew manifestly unto the world, that he was some great matter; for that it was his abandoning that, in effect, made the peace ; being no more but the sacrificing of a poor distressed Prince, unto the utility and ambition of two mighty monarchs. Neither was Perkin, for his part, wanting to 20 himself, either in gracious or princely behaviour, or in ready and apposite answers, or in contenting and caressing those that did apply themselves unto him, or in pretty scorn and disdain to those that seemed to doubt of him ; but in all things did notably acquit himself; insomuch as it was gene- 25 rally believed, as well amongst great persons, as amongst the vulgar, that he was indeed duke Richard. Nay, himself, with long and continual counterfeiting, and with oft telling a lie, was turned by habit almost into the thing he seemed to be; and from a liar to a believer. The duchess therefore, 30 as in a case out of doubt, did him all princely honour, calling him always by the name of her nephew, and giving him the delicate title of the white rose of England; and

appointed him a guard of thirty persons, halberdiers, clad in a party-coloured livery of murrey and blue, to attend his person. Her court likewise, and generally the Dutch and strangers, in their usage towards him, expressed no less 5 respect.

The news hereof came blazing and thundering over into England, that the duke of York was sure alive. As for the name of Perkin Warbeck, it was not at that time come to

light, but all the news ran upon the duke of York; that he 10 had been entertained in Ireland, bought and sold in France, N

and was now plainly avowed, and in great honour in Flan- 1 ta ders. These fames took hold of divers; in some upon discontent; in some upon ambition; in some upon levity and

desire of change; in some few upon conscience and belief, 15

but in most upon simplicity; and in divers, out of dependence upon some of the better sort, who did in secret favour and nourish these bruits. And it was not long ere these rumours of novelty had begotten others of scandal and

murmur against the King and his government; taxing him 20 for a great taxer of his people, and discountenancer of his

nobility. The loss of Britain, and the peace with France, were not forgotten. But chiefly they fell upon the wrong that he did his Queen, in that he did not reign in her right.

Wherefore they said, that God had now brought to light a 25 masculine branch of the house of York, that would not be

at his courtesy, howsoever he did depress his poor lady. And yet, as it fareth in the things which are current with the multitude, and which they affect, these fames grew so

general, as the authors were lost in the generality of speakers. 3• They being like running weeds, that have no certain root;

or like footings up and down, impossible to be traced : but after a while these ill humours drew to an head, and settled secretly in some eminent persons; which were Sir William


Stanley lord chamberlain of the King's household, the lord Fitzwalter, Sir Simon Mountfort, and Sir Thomas Thwaites. These entered into a secret conspiracy to favour duke Richard's title. Nevertheless none engaged their fortunes in this business openly, but two; Sir Robert Clifford, and 5 master William Barley, who sailed over into Flanders, sent indeed from the party of the conspirators here, to understand the truth of those things that passed there, and not without some help of moneys from hence; provisionally to be delivered, if they found and were satisfied, that there was truth 10 in these pretences.

The person of Sir Robert Clifford, being a gentleman of fame and family, was extremely welcome to the lady Margaret. Who after she had conference with him, brought him to the sight of Perkin, with whom he had often speech and discourse. So that in the end, won 15 either by the duchess to affect, or by Perkin to believe, he wrote back into England, that he knew the person of Richard duke of York, as well as he knew his own; and that this young man was undoubtedly he. By this means all things grew prepared to revolt and sedition here, and the con- 20 spiracy came to have a correspondence between Flanders and England.

The King on his part was not asleep; but to arm or levy forces yet, he thought would but shew fear, and do this idol too much worship. Nevertheless the ports he did shut up, 25 or at least kept a watch on them, that none should pass to or fro that was suspected: but for the rest, he chose to work by countermine. His purposes were two; the one to lay open the abuse; the other, to break the knot of the conspirators. To detect the abuse, there were but two ways;

the first, to make it manifest to the world that the duke of York was indeed murdered; the other, to prove that were he dead or alive, yet Perkin was a counterfeit. For the first,




B. H.

thus it stood. There were but four persons that could speak upon knowledge to the murder of the duke of York; Sir James Tirrel, the employed man from King Richard, John

Dighton and Miles Forrest his servants, the two butchers or 5

tormentors, and the priest of the tower that buried them. Of which four, Miles Forrest and the priest were dead, and there remained alive only Sir James Tirrel and John Dighton. These two the King caused to be committed to

the Tower, and examined touching the manner of the death 10 of the two innocent princes. They agreed both in a tale, as

the King gave out to this effect: That King Richard having directed his warrant for the putting of them to death, to Brackenbury the lieutenant of the Tower, was by him re

fused. Whereupon the King directed his warrant to Sir 15 James Tirrel, to receive the keys of the Tower from the lieu

tenant, for the space of a night, for the King's special service. That Sir James Tirrel accordingly repaired to the Tower by night, attended by his two servants aforenamed,

whom he had chosen for that purpose. That himself stood 20 at the stair foot, and sent these two villains to execute the

murder. That they smothered them in their bed; and, that done, called up their master to see their naked dead bodies, which they had laid forth. That they were buried under the

stairs, and some stones cast upon them. That when the re25 port was made to King Richard, that his will was done, he

gave Sir James Tirrel great thanks, but took exception to the place of their burial, being too base for them that were King's children. Whereupon, another night, by the King's

warrant renewed, their bodies were removed by the priest of 30 the Tower, and buried by him in some place, which, by

means of the priest's death soon after, could not be known. Thus much was then delivered abroad, to be the effect of those examinations : but the King, nevertheless, made no

use of them in any of his declarations; whereby, as it seems, those examinations left the business somewhat perplexed. And as for Sir James Tirrel, he was soon after beheaded in the Tower-yard for other matters of treason.

But John Dighton, who, it seemeth, spake best for the King, was forth- 5 with set at liberty, and was the principal means of divulging this tradition. Therefore this kind of proof being left so naked, the King used the more diligence in the latter, for the tracing of Perkin. To this purpose he sent abroad into several parts, and especially into Flanders, divers secret and 10 nimble scouts and spies, some feigning themselves to fly over unto Perkin, and to adhere unto him; and some under other pretences, to learn, search, and discover all the circumstances and particulars of Perkin's parents, birth, person, travels up and down; and in brief, to have a journal, as it 15 were, of his life and doings. He furnished these his employed men liberally with money, to draw on and reward intelligences; giving them also in charge, to advertise continually what they found, and nevertheless still to go on. And ever as one advertisement and discovery called up 20 another, he employed other new men, where the business did require it. Others he employed in a more special nature and trust, to be his pioneers in the main countermine. These were directed to insinuate themselves into the familiarity and confidence of the principal persons of the party 25 in Flanders, and so to learn what associates they had, and correspondents, either here in England, or abroad; and how far every one engaged, and what new ones they meant afterwards to try or board. And as this for the persons, so for the actions themselves, to discover to the bottom, as they 30 could, the utmost of Perkin's and the conspirators, their intentions, hopes, and practices. These latter best-be-trust spies had some of them farther instructions, to practise

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