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daughter; and again between Charles the archduke's son and heir, and Mary the King's second daughter. But these blossoms of unripe marriages were but friendly wishes, and the airs of loving entertainment; though one of them came afterwards to conclusion in treaty, though not in effect. 5 But during the time that the two Princes conversed and communed together in the suburbs of Calais, the demonstrations on both sides were passing hearty and affectionate, especially on the part of the archduke : who, besides that he was a Prince of an excellent good nature, being con- 10 scious to himself how drily the King had been used by his council in the matter of Perkin, did strive by all means to recover it in the King's affection. And having also his ears continually beaten with the counsels of his father and father-in-law, who, in respect of their jealous hatred against 15 the French King, did always advise the archduke to anchor himself upon the amity of King Henry of England; was glad upon this occasion to put in ure and practice their precepts, calling the King patron, and father, and protector, these very words the King repeats, when he certified of 20 the loving behaviour of the archduke to the city, and what else he could devise, to express his love and observance to the King. There came also to the King, the governor of Picardy, and the bailiff of Amiens, sent from Lewis the French King to do him honour, and to give him knowledge 25 of his victory, and winning of the duchy of Milan. It seemeth the King was well pleased with the honours he received from those parts, while he was at Calais ; for he did himself certify all the news and occurrents of them in every particular, from Calais, to the mayor and aldermen 30 of London, which, no doubt, made no small talk in the city. For the King, though he could not entertain the good-will of the citizens, as Edward the fourth did; yet by

affability and other princely graces did ever make very much of them, and apply himself to them.

This year also died John Morton, archbishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, and cardinal. He was a 5 wise man, and an eloquent, but in his nature harsh and

haughty; much accepted by the King, but envied by the nobility, and hated of the people. Neither was his name left out of Perkin's proclamation for any good will, but

they would not bring him in amongst the King's casting 10 counters, because he had the image and superscription

upon him of the Pope, in his honour of cardinal. He won the King with secrecy and diligence, but chiefly because he was his old servant in his less fortunes : and also for

that, in his affections, he was not without an inveterate 15 malice against the house of York, under whom he had been in trouble. He was willing also to take envy

from the King, more than the King was willing to put upon him : for the King cared not for subterfuges, but would stand envy,



any thing that was to his mind; 20 which made envy still grow upon him more universal, but

less daring. But in the matter of exactions, time did after shew, that the bishop in feeding the King's humour did rather temper it. He had been by Richard the third

committed, as in custody, to the duke of Buckingham, 25 whom he did secretly incite to revolt from King Richard.

But after the duke was engaged, and thought the bishop should have been his chief pilot in the tempest, the bishop was gotten into the cock-boat, and fled over beyond seas.

But whatsoever else was in the man, he deserveth a most 30 happy memory, in that he was the principal mean of join

ing the two Roses. He died of great years, but of strong health and powers.

The next year, which was the sixteenth year of the


King, and the year of our Lord one thousand five hundred, was the year of jubile at Rome. But Pope Alexander, to save the hazard and charges of men's journeys to Rome, thought good to make over those graces by exchange, to such as would pay a convenient rate, seeing they 5 could not come to fetch them. For which purpose was sent into England, Jasper Pons, a Spaniard, the Pope's commissioner, better chosen than the commissioners of Pope Leo afterwards employed for Germany: for he carried the business with great wisdom, and sem- 10 blance of holiness: insomuch as he levied great sums of money

within this land to the Pope's use, with little or no scandal. It was thought the King shared in the money. But it appeareth by a letter which cardinal Adrian, the King's pensioner, wrote to the King from 15 Rome some few years after, that this was not so. For this cardinal, being to persuade Pope Julius, on the King's behalf, to expedite the bull of dispensation for the marriage between Prince Henry and the lady Catharine, finding the Pope difficile in granting thereof, doth use it as a 20 principal argument concerning the King's merit towards that see, that he had touched none of those deniers which had been levied by Pons in England. But that it might the better appear, for the satisfaction of the common people, that this was consecrated money, the same nuncio 25 brought unto the King a brief from the Pope, wherein the King was exhorted and summoned to come in person against the Turk: for that the Pope, out of the care of an universal father, seeing almost under his eyes the successes and progresses of that great enemy of the faith, had had 30 in the conclave, and with the assistance of the ambassador, of foreign Princes, divers consultations about an holy war and a general expedition of Christian Princes against the

Turk : wherein it was agreed and thought fit, that the Hungarians, Polonians, and Bohemians, should make a war upon Thracia; the French and Spaniards upon Græcia;

and that the Pope, willing to sacrifice himself in so good a 5 cause, in person and in company of the King of England,

the Venetians, and such other states as were great in maritime power, would sail with a puissant navy through the Mediterranean unto Constantinople. And that to this end,

his Holiness had sent nuncios to all Christian Princes; as 10 well for a cessation of all quarrels and differences amongst

themselves, as for speedy preparations and contributions of forces and treasure for this sacred enterprise.

To this the King, who understood well the court of Rome, made an answer rather solemn than serious : sig15 nifying,

"That no Prince on earth should be more forward and “obedient, both by his person, and by all his possible forces “and fortunes, to enter into this sacred war, than himself.

“But that the distance of place was such, as no forces that 20 “he should raise for the seas, could be levied or prepared

“but with double the charge, and double the time at the “least, that they might be from the other Princes, that had “their territories nearer adjoining. Besides, that neither the

manner of his ships, having no galleys, nor the experience 25 "of his pilots and mariners, could be so apt for those seas

as theirs. And therefore that his Holiness might do well "to move one of those other Kings, who lay fitter for the "purpose, to accompany him by sea. Whereby both all

things would be sooner put in readiness, and with less 30 "charge, and the emulation and division of command,

“which might grow between those Kings of France and

Spain, if they should both join in the war by land upon “Græcia, might be wisely avoided : and that for his part he

"would not be wanting in aids and contribution. Yet not'withstanding, if both these Kings should refuse, rather “ than his Holiness should go alone, he would wait upon him "as soon as he could be ready : always provided, that he "might first see all differences of the Christian Princes 5 "amongst themselves fully laid down and appeased, as for “his own part he was in none, and that he might have some "good towns uport the coast in Italy put into his hands, for “the retreat and safeguard of his men.”

With this answer Jasper Pons returned, nothing at all 10 discontented: and yet this declaration of the King, as superficial as it was, gave him that reputation abroad, as he was not long after elected by the knights of Rhodes protector of their order; all things multiplying to honour in a prince, that had gotten such high estimation for his wisdom and 15 sufficiency.

There were these two last years some proceedings against heretics, which was rare in this King's reign, and rather by penances, than by fire. The King had, though he were no good schoolman, the honour to convert one of them by 20 dispute at Canterbury.

This year also, though the King were no more haunted with sprites, for that by the sprinkling, partly of blood, and partly of water, he had chased them away; yet nevertheless he had certain apparitions that troubled him, still shewing 25 themselves from one region, which was the house of York. It came so to pass, that the earl of Suffolk, son to Elizabeth eldest sister to King Edward the fourth, by John duke of Suffolk, her second husband, and brother to John earl of Lincoln, that was slain at Stoke-field, being of an hasty and 30 choleric disposition, had killed a man in his fury; whereupon the King gave him his pardon. But, either willing to leave a cloud upon him, or the better to make him feel his grace,

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