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produced him openly to plead his pardon. This wrought in the earl, as in a haughty stomach it useth to do; for the ignominy printed deeper than the grace. Wherefore he

being discontent, fled secretly into Flanders unto his aunt 5 the duchess of Burgundy. The King startled at it; but,

being taught by troubles to use fair and timely remedies, wrought so with him by messages, the lady Margaret also growing, by often failing in her alchemy, weary of her ex

periments; and partly being a little sweetened, for that the 10 King had not touched her name in the confession of Perkin,

that he came over again upon good terms, and was reconciled to the King.

In the beginning of the next year, being the seventeenth of the King, the lady Catharine, fourth daughter of Fer15 dinando and Isabella, King and Queen of Spain, arrived in

England at Plymouth the second of October, and was married to Prince Arthur in Paul's the fourteenth of November following: the Prince being then about fifteen years of

age, and the lady about eighteen. The manner of her 20 receiving, the manner of her entry into London, and the

celebrity of the marriage, were performed with great and true magnificence in regard of cost, shew, and order. The chief man that took the care was bishop Fox, who was not

only a grave counsellor for war or peace, but also a good 25 surveyor of works, and a good master of ceremonies, and

any thing else that was fit for the active part, belonging to the service of the court or state of a great King. This marriage was almost seven years in treaty, which was in

part caused by the tender years of the marriage-couple, 30 especially of the Prince; but the true reason was, that these

two Princes, being Princes of great policy and profound judgment, stood a great time looking one upon another's fortunes, how they would go; knowing well, that in the

mean time the very treaty itself gave abroad in the world a reputation of a strait conjunction and amity between them, which served on both sides to many purposes, that their several affairs required, and yet they continued still free. But in the end, when the fortunes of both the Princes 5 did grow every day more and more prosperous and assured, and that looking all about them, they saw no better conditions, they shut it up.

The marriage money the Princess brought, which was turned over to the King by act of renunciation, was two 10 hundred thousand ducats : whereof one hundred thousand were payable ten days after the solemnization, and the other hundred thousand at two payments annual; but part of it to be in jewels and plate, and a due course set down to have them justly and indifferently prized. The jointure or advance- 15 ment of the lady, was the third part of the principality of Wales, and of the dukedom of Cornwall, and of the earldom of Chester, to be after set forth in severalty : and in case she came to be Queen of England, her advancement was left indefinite, but thus; that it should be as great as ever any former Queen of England had.

In all the devices and conceits of the triumphs of this marriage, there was a great deal of astronomy: the lady being resembled to Hesperus, and the Prince to Arcturus, and the old King Alphonsus, that was the greatest astro- 25 nomer of Kings, and was ancestor to the lady, was brought in, to be the fortune-teller of the match. And whosoever had those toys in compiling, they were not altogether pedantical: but you may be sure, that King Arthur the Britain, and the descent of the lady Catharine from the house of 30 Lancaster, was in no wise forgotten. But, as it should seem, it is not good to fetch fortunes from the stars : for this young Prince, that drew upon him at that time, not

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only the hopes and affections of his country, but the eyes and expectation of foreigners, after a few months, in the beginning of April, deceased at Ludlow Castle, where he

was sent to keep his resiance and court, as Prince of Wales. 5 Of this Prince, in respect he died so young, and by reason

of his father's manner of education, that did cast no great lustre upon his children, there is little particular memory: only thus much remaineth, that he was very studious and

learned beyond his years, and beyond the custom of great 1o Princes.

The February following, Henry duke of York was created Prince of Wales, and earl of Chester and Flint : for the dukedom of Cornwall devolved to him by statute.

The King also being fast-handed, and loth to part with a 15 second dowry, but chiefly being affectionate both by his

nature, and out of politic considerations to continue the alliance with Spain, prevailed with the Prince, though not without some reluctation, such as could be in those years,

for he was not twelve years of age, to be contracted with 20 the Princess Catharine : The secret providence of God or

daining that marriage to be the occasion of great events and changes.

The same year were the espousals of James King of Scotland with the lady Margaret the King's eldest daughter; 25 which was done by proxy, and published at Paul's cross

the five and twentieth of January, and Te Deum solemnly sung. But certain it is, that the joy of the city thereupon shewed, by ringing of bells and bonfires, and such other

incense of the people, was more than could be expected, 30 in a case of so great and fresh enmity between the nations,

especially in London, which was far enough off from feeling any of the former calamities of the r: and therefore might be truly attributed to a secret instinct and inspiring,

which many

times runneth not only in the hearts of Princes, but in the pulse and veins of people, touching the happiness thereby to ensue in time to come. This marriage was in August following consummated at Edinburgh : the King bringing his daughter as far as Colliweston on the way, 5 and then consigning her to the attendance of the earl of Northumberland; who with a great troop of lords and ladies of honour brought her into Scotland, to the King her husband.

This marriage had been in treaty by the space of almost so three years, from the time that the King of Scotland did first open his mind to bishop Fox. The sum given in marriage by the King, was ten thousand pounds: and the jointure and advancement assured by the King of Scotland, was two thousand pounds a year, after King James his 15 death, and one thousand pounds a year in present, for the lady's allowance or maintenance. This to be set forth in lands, of the best and most certain revenue. During the treaty, it is reported, that the King remitted the matter to his council; and that some of the table, in the freedom 20 of counsellors, the King being present, did put the case ; that if God should take the King's two sons without issue, that then the kingdom of England would fall to the King of Scotland, which might prejudice the monarchy of England. Whereunto the King himself replied; that if that 25 should be, Scotland would be but an accession to England, and not England to Scotland, for that the greater would draw the less : and that it was a safer union for England than that of France. This passed as an oracle, and silenced those that moved the question.

30 The same year was fatal, as well for deaths as marriages, and that with equal temper. For the joys and feasts of the two marriages were compensed with the mournings

and funerals of Prince Arthur, of whom we have spoken, and of Queen Elizabeth, who died in child-bed in the Tower, and the child lived not long after. There died also

that year Sir Reginald Bray, who was noted to have had 5 with the King the greatest freedom of any counsellor; but

it was but a freedom the better to set off flattery. Yet he bare more than his just part of envy for the exactions.

At this time the King's estate was very prosperous; secured by the amity of Scotland, strengthened by that of 10 Spain, cherished by that of Burgundy, all domestic troubles

quenched, and all noise of war, like a thunder afar off, going upon Italy. Wherefore nature, which many times is happily contained and refrained by some bands of for

tune, began to take place in the King; carrying, as with 15 a strong tide, his affections and thoughts unto the gathering

and heaping up of treasure. And as Kings do more easily find instruments for their will and humour, than for their service and honour; he had gotten for his purpose, or

beyond his purpose, two instruments, Empson and Dudley, 20 whom the people esteemed as his horse-leeches and shearers,

bold men and careless of fame, and that took toll of their master's grist. Dudley was of a good family, eloquent, and one that could put hateful business into good language.

But Empson, that was the son of a sieve-maker, triumphed 25 always upon the deed done, putting off all other respects

whatsoever. These two persons being lawyers in science, and privy counsellors in authority, as the corruption of the best things is the worst, turned law and justice into worm

wood rapine. For first, their manner was to cause divers 30 subjects to be indicted of sundry crimes, and so far forth

to proceed in form of law; but when the bills were found, then presently to commit them : and nevertheless not to produce them in any reasonable time to their answer, but

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