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23. the proveró. I have not been able to discover the source of this proverb, which seems to imply that when all is easy, as in a downhill journey, every small assistance is offered and will be of use.

26. raised his siege. On Monday, 18th of September.

P. 167, line 7. Berdly, i.e. Bewley, or Beaulieu. His flight took place on the 21st September.

P. 168, line 11. entrance into Exeter. The King arrived here on October 7th.

P. 169, line 14. the Lord Darcy. This was Thomas, Lord Darcy. who succeeded his father in the 3rd year of Henry VII. He was one of those lords who marched with Thomas, Earl of Surrey to the relief of Norham Castle when it was besieged by the Scots. Beside the commission mentioned in the text he was made Constable of Bamborough Castle, and next year Captain of the town of Berwick, and Warden of the East and Middle Marches of Scotland. In the 18th year of Henry VII, Lord Darcy was one of the commissioners for receiving the oath of James IV of Scotland upon a treaty of peace. He flourished in the whole of this reign and in the next until the time of the Pilgrimage of Grace, when being, with the Archbishop of York, in the castle of Pontefract, he surrendered it to the rebels. For this he was found guilty of treason and beheaded on Tower Hill, June 20, 1539.

21. treasure. The original return of the fines then levied is preserved in the British Museum. See Ellis' Letiers, ist Ser. Vol. 1. p. 38. (Spedding.) P. 170, line 8. ckurm. Murmur, noise, perhaps A. S. cyrm

=a din. especially the noise of birds. The form charm occurs in this sense, but not churm. See Halliwell's Dict. (s. v.). Mr Spedding prints churmne. The 1622 edition has churme. The Latin translator evidently did not know what to do with it and so substitutes cum choro.

the King, i.e. to Perkin, who had called himself King Richard IV.

P. 171, line 7. a great fire. On the night of St Thomas Day (21st Dec.) about nine o'clock.

14. Sebastian Gabato (generally written in English, Cabot) son of John Cabot, was born at Bristol about 1477. He was employed by Henry VII in 1495, and in 1497 discovered what is now known as New foundland. Both father and son were famous as navigators. Sebastian died in 1557 after a life of great adventure and success.

15. seen in, i.e. acquainted with, skilled in. Cf. More's Utopia (Pitt Press Series), p. 7, “In the knowledge of the Latin tongue, he was not so well sene as to be hable to judge of the finenes or coursenes of my translation.”

17. Christophorus Columbus. Columbus saw the light on St Salvador on 3rd October, 1492.

P. 172, line 3. Seneca's prophecy, alluding perhaps to what Seneca says of the Atlantic, Quæst. Nat. IV. 2.

Plato's antiquities. The substance of what Plato says, in his Timæus, and in the Critias, is that the Atlantis was a large island in the Western Ocean situate opposite to the Straits of Gades (Gibraltar). There were

I 2.

of 1496.

other islands near it. Neptune settled in it with his ten sons, whose descendants reigned there for gooo years. At length the island sank under water. For an account of all that has been written on the subject see Rees' Cyclopædia, s. v. Atlantis.

9._bearing the King in hand, i.e. inducing the King to believe. Lat. Regi fidem faciens.

23. King of Portugal. This was John II who reigned from 1481 to 1495. The great problem before the navigators of that day was a passage to India by sea. The Portuguese were seeking to solve it by the circumnavigation of Africa. Diaz had already (in 1487) doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and Don John was so much taken up with the one project that he could not listen to the other proposal for crossing the Atlantic and reaching India by sailing westward.

P. 173, line 14. quarrelled, this word, derived from Lat. querela, means in the first instance to bring a complaint against, or as here, to upbraid, or murmur against. Cf. Montagu against Selden (on Tithes) 422, “He quareleth the reading,” ib. 516, “Except you can quarrell the translation.

P. 174, line 11. Melross, i. e. Melrose in Roxburghshire. The abbey here, which is famous still as a magnificent ruin, was founded by King David I in 1136.

32. more than well disposed. There had been a commission, for treating on the subject of this match, granted by Henry in the summer

P. 175, line 3. a little before Christmas. Mr Spedding says, “I think this is a mistake." The former treaty (see pp. 160, 161 and notes) was published a little before Christmas, 1497. The treaty now in question, which contains the article concerning the letters commendatory (Rymer xil. 724), was not concluded till the 12th July, 1499. It was ratified by James on the 20th at Strivelin, and immediately after, that is on the 11th September, a commission was granted to Bishop Fox to treat of the marriage.

to lock in the borderers, i.e. to prevent those from coming into collision who had been in old times the cause of all the discords.

13. Edmund. He was christened 24 Feb. 1498-9 and died June

15. Charles the French King Charles VIII died 7th April 1498. The news reached London in the same month.

all corners were laid, i.e. every point was carefully watched.

house of Bethlehem. Hall gives a rather fuller description of this place which he says is “beside Richmond in Southrey” (i.e. Surrey). His flight took place on Saturday, June 9th, 1498, according to the old Chronicle, and he was placed in the stocks on the Friday next following:

P. 176, line 5. read his confession. That the student may have an opportunity of comparing the style of Hall with that of Bacon, and noticing the advance made within so short a period in English prose composition, the confession of Perkin is subjoined as in Hall's Chronicle. “It is to be knowen, that I was borne in the toune of

IO.

12th, 1500,

20. 22.

Turney in Flaunders, and my fathers name is John Osbeck, which sayd John Osbeck was comptroller of the sayde toune of Turney, and my mothers name is Katheryn de Faro. And one of my grauntsires upon my fathers side was named Diryck Osbeck which dyed, after whose death my grauntmother was maryed unto the withinnamed Peter Hamme, that was receaver of the forenamed toune of Turney, and deane of the botemen that rowe upon the water or ryver, called Leschelde. And my grauntsire upon my mothers side was Peter de Faro, whiche had in hys kepyng the keyes of the gate of sainct Jhons within the same toune of Turney. Also I had an uncle called master Jhon Stalyn, dwelling in the parish of sainct Pyas within the same toune, which had maried my suster, whose name was Jone or Jane, with whome I dwelled a certain ceason. And afterward I was led by my mother to Andwerp for to learne Flemmishe, in the house of a cousyn of myne, an officier of the said toune, called Jhon Stienbeck, with whome I was the space of halfe a yere. And after that I returned agayn to Turney, by reason of the warres that were in Flaunders. And within a yere folowing I was sent with a merchaunt of the sayd toune of Turney named Berlo, and his masters name Alexander, to the marte of And. warpe where I fell sycke, whiche sickenes contynued upon fyve monethes. And the sayde Barlo set me to boorde in a skinners house, that dwelled beside the house of the English nacion. And by him I was from thence caryed to Barowe marte, and I lodged at the signe of the olde man, where I abode the space of two monethes. And after this the sayde Barlo set me with a merchaunt of Middelborough too servyce, for to leame the language, whose name was Jhon Strewe, with whom I dwelled frome Christmas tyll Easter, and then I went into Portyngale, in the companye of Syr Edward Bramptones wyfe in a shype whiche was called the quenes shippe. And when I was come thether, then I was put in servyce to a knyghte that dwelled in Lusborne, whiche was called Peter Vacz de Cogna, with whome I dwelled a whole yere, whiche sayde knyght had but one eye. And because I desyred to see other countryes, I toke lycence of him, and then I put myself in servyce with a Bryton, called Pregent Meno, the which brought me with him into Ireland, and when we were there arrived in the toune of Corke, they of the toune, because I was arayed with some clothes of sylke of my saide maistres, came unto me and threeped upon me that I should be the duke of Clarence sonne, that was before tyme at Develyn. And foras. much as I denied it, there was brought unto me the holy evangelist and the Crosse by the Mayre of the toune, which was called Jhon le Wellen, and there in the presence of him and other I toke myne othe as the truth was, that I was not the foresaid dukes sonne, nor none of his blood. And after this came unto me an Englishman, whose name was Stephen Poytron, with one Jhon Water, and saide to me in swearing great othes that they knew wel that I was kynge Rychardes bastard sonne: to whome I aunswered with like othes that I was not. And then they advysed me not to be afearde, but that I should take it upon me boldely, and if I woulde so do they wo de aid and ass me with all their powre agaynst the kyng of England, and not only they, but

22.

they were assured well that the erles of Desmond and Kyldare should do the same. For they forced not what party they toke, so that they might be revenged upon the kyng of England, and so against my will made me to learne English, and taught me what I should do and saye. And after this they called me duke of Yorke, second sonne of kynge Edward the fourth, because king Richardes bastard sonne was in the handes of the king of England. And upon this the said Jhon Water, Stephen Poytron, Jhon Tyler, Hughbert Burghe with many other as the foresayd Erles, entred into this false quarrell. And within shorte tyme after, the French king sent an Ambassadour into Ireland, whose name was Loyte Lucas, and master Stephen Fryan, to advertise me to come into Fraunce. And thence I went into Fraunce and from thence into Flaunders, and from Flaunders into Ireland and from Ireland into Scotland, and so into England.”.

Sir John Digby. Among the Privy Purse expenses is an item (Sept. 23rd 1494) " for Thomas Digby and four yomen riding to feche Long Roger. These were the persons employed by Sir John, the one named being probably a relative whom he could trust, to arrest the servants whom Perkin had bribed.

P. 177, line 24. executed. Ralph Wilford was hanged on Shrove Tuesday, Feb. 13th, 1498-9.

31. of his order, i.e. he was not executed, because he was a clergyman and so could claim privilege.

P. 178, line 5. arraigned at Westminster. This was November 16th, 1499.

to destroy those that did not espy him first. This power was ascribed to the cockatrice. See Sir Thos. Brown, Vulgar Errors, Book Ill. ch. 7. 16. three counsellors, i.e. Herne, Skelton and Astley (see text,

the mayor of Cork, called in Hall “Jhon Awater." 32. beheaded on Tower-hill. The Earl of Warwick was arraignedl on the 19th of November, and beheaded on the 29th, 1499.

P. 179, line 7. transplanted into other names. For some of the various families which can trace their origin to the Plantagenet line, see Imhoff, Hist. Genealogica, Tab. v.

26. King Henry the eighth his resolution. This use of his as an equivalent for the old es of the possessive case was of common acceptance in Bacon's time. Its mistaken character is at once seen, when it is remembered that the same termination belongs to feminine nouns, after whick: his could of course not be used. We have an instance in the Book of Common Prayer, at the close of the Prayer for all conditions of men, for Jesus Christ his sake.”

P. 180, line 18. Lord Saint John, i.e. Thomas Poynings, Lord St John of Basing.

31. former treaties. Some new regulations about wool and the sale of cloth had been agreed upon between Henry and Philip, in the spring of 1499, and proclaimed in London on 29th May in that year.

33. duke of York, Prince Henry, afterwards Henry VIII.

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P. 181, line 5. in treaty. The marriage between Charles the son of Philip and the Princess Mary of England became afterwards the subject of a treaty. See Rymer (XIII. p. 171).

how drily, i.e. with what curtness and want of courtesy. For the facts see text, p. 119.

14. father and father in law, Maximilian and Ferdinand.

18. in ure. This form of the word use was common at this period. Cf. More's Utopia, Arber's Reprints, p. 121, “To keep in ure the feate and knowledge of sailing.” A similar variation of these consonants may be seen in A.S. inf. forleosan (to lose) and p.p. forloren (lost, forlorn).

24. Lewis, i. e. Lewis XII.

26. winning of the duchy of Milan. As soon as Lewis XII came to the throne he laid claim not only to the throne of Naples, but also to the duchy of Milan as the representative of his grandmother Valentina Visconti, only daughter of the last duke of that name. Having secured the concurrence of the Pope and the cooperation or neutrality of the other powers, his army led by Stuart D'Aubigny and Trivulcio descended into Lombardy in August, 1499, without cpposition. Ludovico Sforza fled to the Tyrol and claimed the protection of Maximilian. The French generals entered Milan in triumph on the 14th of Sept. without having fired a single shot.

P. 183, line 2. year of jubile. The year of Jubile extended from Christmas, 1499, to Christmas, 1500, therefore it coincided more nearly with the King's fifteenth year. Jasper Pons came in 1499–50. ' For the articles of the bull of the Holy Jubile see Gairdner's Letters, &c. (11. 93–100), where is an edifying list of the prices to be paid by all sorts of persons for their dispensations.

7. Jasper Pons, called in the above named document “ the right reverend father in God, Jasper Pon, prothonotary and doctor of Divinity of our said Holy Father, the pope's ambassador.”

9. Pope Leo. Alluding to those sent in the time of Leo X, to raise money by the sale of indulgences ; whose behaviour was so gross and irreverent as to lead to the demand for a Reformation. Tetzel (Luther's adversary) was one of the most energetic of these commissioners of Pope Leo. 13. the King shared in the money.

That this was not so, see Excerpta Historica, p. 128, where is an entry of £4000 paid to “Caspar Pon” for the Pope's use, which shews that so far from sharing in the Jubile-money the King sent, of his own, a large sum for the Papal use.

27. in person against the Turk. The old Chroniclequoted by Mr Spedding says, “This year came certain tidings to the King that the Turk had gotten the town Modon and made great destruction of the Christians.”

P. 184, line 14. rather solemn than serious, i. e. of a formal character, but without any serious intention of taking action in the matter.

31. Kings of France and Spain. Henry's suggestion is that instead of these two Kings joining in the attack on Græcia, in which common action they might disagree, it would be wise to give one of them the command of the navy.

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