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P. 185, line 13. knights of Rhodes, the Knights of St John. This order founded in 1048 came and settled in Rhodes in 1310, where they remained till 1522.

to convert one of them. See Excerpta Historica, p. 117, where on April 20, 1498, the King gives "to the herytik at Canterbury 6s. 8d.” Perhaps this was the man. The old Chronicle says that the convert “died a Christian man whereof His Grace have great honour.” In spite of his conversion he was burnt all the same. See Fuller, Church Hist. IV. 15. 32.

27. Earl of Suffolk. See the table in notes, p. 230.

P. 186, line 4. being discontent. He fled in the month of August. “It seems,” says Mr Spedding, “ that the Earl had another cause of discontent. His elder brother John (earl of Lincoln) had been attainted during the duke their father's lifetime. When the duke died, Edmund (earl of Suffolk) claimed the honour and estate of his father. But Henry persisted in considering him as the heir of his brother, and gave him only the title of Earl with a small portion of his patrimony:an instance of the troubles which Henry bred for himself from his aversion to the House of York.”

14. Lady Catharine. There see:ns to be some mistake about the age of Catharine of Aragon. Miss Strickland, on the authority of a Spanish MS., says she was born on 15th Dec. 1485. So that she was not quite sixteen at the time of her marriage to Prince Arthur.

The details which preceded this marriage are given in a note of Mr Spedding's (p. 212). It was first agreed upon on the 27th of March, 1489, before Arthur was three years old. On 2nd Nov. 1491, Catharine's dowry was settled, and it was arranged that she should be brought to England as soon as Arthur had completed his fourteenth year. On Oct. 1, 1496, it was settled that if necessary for any urgent cause, the Pope should be applied to for a dispensation that the marriage by proxy should take place as soon as Arthur had completed his twelfth year. Arthur was twelve years old in Sept. 1498. The proxy marriage took place 19th May, 1499. On the 20th of Dec. 1499, the proxy marriage was approved by Ferdinand and Isabella, and on the 28th May, 1500, the whole proceeding was ratified by Henry.” These long previous treaties and contracts make against the idea that there was a very close connection between Warwick's execution and the final settlement of this marriage.

P. 188, line 3 deceased at Ludlow. This was 2nd April, 1502, so that Arthur's age was then about fifteen years and a half.

11. February. The date of Henry's creation as Prince of Wales is 18th Feb. 1503.

26. the frove and twentieth of January, i.e. in 1503. From this marriage was descended James V, father of Mary Queen of Scots, who was mother of James I of England.

P. 189, line 5. Colliweston, in Northamptonshire, about four miles from Stamford. It was a favourite residence of the King's mother, where she finished the house begun by Ralph Lord Cromwell.


6. Earl of Northumberland. Sir Henry Percy, the commander at Blackheath.

three years. More than three years. Fox was formally commissioned to treat of the marriage on the uth September, 1499.

P. 190, line 2. Queen Elizabeth. She died Feb. 2nd, 1503.

6. the better to set of flattery. The Latin gives quod adulationem redderet magis sapidam, that he might give his flattery more flavour.

19. Empson. Richard Empson, the well-known instrument of Henry's exactions.

Ludley, Edmund Dudley, the father of John Dudley, who became earl of Warwick in the next reign, and duke of Northumberland under' Edward VI, and was father of eight sons, among whom the most known are Lord Guildford Dudley, married to Lady Jane Grey, and Lord Robert, the famous Earl of Leicester, of the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

24. triumphed always upon the deed done, i.e. secured the accomplishment of what he aimed at by any means in his power, and then had his triumph.

32. to commit them, i. e. to prison, instead of proceeding with their trial upon the bills found against them.

33. produce them, i.e. in court, to answer the charges laid against them.

P. 191, line 6. the half-face. They had a shew of legal proceeding when they caused their victims to be indicted and had bills found, but soon they left off even this.

9. in a court of commission, proceeding as if they were appointed special commissioners.

14. tenures in capite. The tenures in capite were subject to the seven following incidents, aids, relief, primer seisin, wardship, marriage, fines for alienation, and escheat.

false offices, feigned and invented duties to which the tenants were made liable.

15. wardships, the right whereby the child of a tenant in capite, while under age, becomes if left fatherless the ward of the feudal lord.

liveries, sometimes called livery of seisin, which was the formal investiture of the tenant with his possessions, and was held absolutely necessary to complete the donation, and which of course had to be paid for.

16. premier seisins, the right which accrues to the feudal lord to claim a certain sum wher, the heirs to an estate held from him are of

full age.

22. informations of intrusion, complaints of having encroached on the royal domain, which these men made with little or no ground.

32. to find, to give such verdicts as they would direct. P. 192, line 5: working: The Latin gives flagellum, a scourge. 9. than of rigour, i. e. than of being rigorously enforced.

1o. leading jurors, who would understand what was expected of them, and lead the rest of their number with them.

16. Henningham, called also Heveningham and Iledingham, is in

Essex, and was at this time the seat of the Earl of Oxford. See Paston Letters (Gairdner), Vol. III. p. 352.

24. It may please. See note on Dedication, line 1.

that were not for mine case. To have so large a number of servants to maintain would be a very costly matter even for the Earl of Oxford.

25. my retainers. The Latin explains, Servants who render occasional extraordinary service, but live at their own cost.

32. fifteen thousand marks. The King visited Lord Oxford on the 6th of August, 1498 (see Privy Purse Expenses of Hen. VII, p. 119), on which occasion the incident here narrated may have occurred. A heavier fine for a similar offence was exacted from Lord Abergavenny some years afterwards. In a memorandum of obligations and sums of money received by Edmund Dudley for fines and duties to be paid to the King (MS. Harl. 1877, f. 47), the following item appears as belonging to the 23rd year of this reign :

Item ; delivered three exemplifications under the seal of the Lords of King's Bench of the confession and condemnation of the Lord Burgavenny for such retainers as he was indicted of in Kent; which amounteth unto, for his part only, after the rate of the months £ 69,900.

It appears from the Calendar of Patent Rolls (23 Hen. VII, Pt. II, p. 18) that George Nevile Knt. Lord Burgavenny received a pardon of all felonies, offences against the forest laws, &c., on the i8th Feb. 1507—8, two months before Henry's death. Fahyan mentions his being committed to the Tower “for a displeasure which concerned no treason" in May, 1506 (Spedding).

P. 193, line 16. at Prince Arthur's marriage. A mistake. Fabyan and the old Chronicle both state that the Earl of Lincoln went abroad secretly in August, 1501, and in the Calendar of Patent Rolls (17 Hen. VII, Pt. II. p. 4) Sir Robert Lovell is appointed, on Oct. 8, 1501, as receiver and surveyor of all lands, &c., in Norfolk and Suffolk, late the property of the rebel Edmund earl of Suffolk.

19. his brother. . Richard de la Pole. (See Dugdale, II. 191). He was afterwards slain in battle at Pavia in Italy in 1525.

27. Sir Robert Curson, sometimes called Lord Curson. Maximilian created him a baron of the Roman empire. On his communications with Maximilian concerning Edmund de la Pole many documents are given in Gairdner's Letters, &c.

P. 194, line 6. William de la Pole. This is a mistake. The brothers of the Earl of Suffolk alive at this time were only Humphrey, a cleric: Edward archdeacon of Richmond, and the Richard mentioned above. But Hall gives the same name, William de la Pole.

7. Sir James Tirrel. The murderer of the princes in the Tower.

Sir John Windham. He with Tirrel was executed on May 6th, 1502.

9. George Lord Abergavenny. See note on p. 192, 1. 32.

Sir Thomas Green. He is mentioned in Gairdner's Letters, &c. (1. 226) in an account of the astrologers who were to be consulted as to the

a statute.

chances of Edmund de la Pole's success; also (1. 410) as taking part in the preparations for the reception of Catharine of Aragon.

24. bull of excommunication and curse. That Henry was wont in this way to confirm the credit of his spies see text, p. 116. Fabyan says these men were cursed twice, on Sunday, 23rd October, 1502, and again on the first Sunday in Lent (March 5) 1503. Curson received his pardon May 5, 1504.

P. 195, line 6. Foan his wife, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. 9. his parliament. This was summoned for 25 January, 1503-4. 16.

This was 19 Hen. VII, c. 1, and provides that whosoever doth not attend upon the King being in person in wars shall lose such lands as he hath of the King's gift.

22. from their house, i.e. from the time of leaving their house, as stated in the act.

28. Another statute. This was 19 Hen. VII, C. 21, defining what small things wrought of silk may not be imported. Those having them in stock were allowed till Whitsunday 1505 to get them sold.

P. 196, line 6. patents of gaols. This act is 19 Hen. VII, C. 19, providing that the sheriffs shall have the keeping of the common gaols and the prisoners therein, and making them responsible for the safe custody; so all letters patent granting the keeping of any gaols were revoked.

13. being fraternities in evil, i.e. these corporations being fraternities in evil. This statute is 19 Hen. VII, c. 7, and states that the bylaws against which it was directed had been unlawful and unreasonable ordinances, as well in prices of wares as in other things.

18. to bring in the silver, &c. This act is 19 Hen. VII, c. 5. It allowed persons to convert their clipped coin into plate or bullion. It also describes the value at which the coins already in use are to be accepted.

31. not the only statute. This was 19 Hen. VII, c. 12, but in this reign another statute against vagabonds appears in the eleventh year, c. 2.

P. 197, line 2. as if the one, &c., i.e. as if the punishment of the one were of no avail without the putting down of the other : as though it were idle to get rid of one unless you got rid of the other.

6. an eye to might and multitude, being on his watch to keep in check the power of the nobles in their retainers, and the gatherings of the people in riot.

7. a subsidy. The King could at this time claim two reasonable aids, one for the knighting of his son, the other for the marriage of his daughter. The Commons offered him £40,000 in lieu of them.

8. the clergy. The clergy at this time formed a separate estate and taxed themselves by their own vote independently of the temporal estates of the realm.

31. the serjeant's feast. See supra, p. 131, 1. 7 and note. This second feast was kept 13th Nov., 1503.

33. Isabella Queen of Castile. She died 26th Nov., 1504.



P. 198, line 3. not for news at large, i.e. not merely a matter which concerned all persons alike, no piece of ordinary news.

14. the other, i.e. the case of Ferdinand.

P. 199, line 7. poor amity of Aragon. Poor, because Ferdinand would have lost Castile.

Queen of Naples. This was Joan widow of Ferdinand II of Naples, and niece of Ferdinand of Aragon. 16. goal=a matter of contention.

Francis Marsin. Sir Francis Marsin was also employed in the communications between Lewis XII and Henry. See Gairdner's Letters, &c. (1. 289). He was likewise one of those present at the meet. ing between Henry and the Archduke Philip in 1500.

James Braybrooke. Braybrooke is mentioned among the grooms and pages of the chamber present at the same meeting.

21. John Stile. Stile is alluded to in the instructions given to Wolsey about the treaty of marriage between Henry and Margaret of Savoy He must have at some time been in trouble, for he received a pardon 16 June, 1502. See Gairdner, 11. 378.

The commissioners went first to Valencia, where the two Queens were, and then to Segovia, where they arrived on the 14th of July, 1505, and had their interview with Ferdinand shortly afterwards.

Marsin and Braybooke were paid 55. a day and Stile 4s. a day for four months, which was the time occupied by the mission.

29. the old... Queen of Naples. This was Joan, widow of Ferdinand I of Naples. She was a daughter of John II king of Aragon, and mother of the widowed queen mentioned p. 119, 1. 13.

31. Doctor de Puebla. Rodrigo de la Puebla. For much of the correspondence of this envoy with Ferdinand, see Gairdner's Letters, &c. In 1507 King Henry granted to him the office of Master of Sherborne Hospital (Rymer, xii. 167).

P. 200, line 5. curious and exquisite. The commissioners report in regard to one point of their directions, “to mark and note well the features of her body," that the young queen was so covered with her mantle that they could only see her visage.

P. 201, line 10. by continuance, by a long residence in the country.

13. Pluto was better to him than Pallas, i.e. Pluto representing wealth and Pallas wisdom, the phrase implies that his plans did not succeed, though in gain of actual wealth he was very fortunate.

which was the King's own case, i.e. Prince Henry's popularity was greater than that of his father, and for this same reason, that the King had grieved the people by his exactions. See text, p. 211.

25. Amason. Michael Peter d'Almacan, secretary of Ferdinand and Isabella (see Rymer, XIII. 86).

27. Charles Prince of Castile: afterwards the famous emperor Charles V. He was born at Ghent 24th February, 1500.

31. Angolesme. This was Francis of Angoulême, duke of Valois, afterwards King Francis I of France.

P. 202, line 1. Madame de Fois, i.e. Germaine de Foix, niece to Lewis XII.


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