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with twelve ships, well furnished with soldiers and artillery, to clear the seas, and to besiege Sluice on that part. Englishmen did not only coop up the lord Ravenstein, that he stirred not, and likewise hold in strait siege the maritime 5 part of the town; but also assailed one of the castles, and renewed the assault so for twenty days' space, issuing still out of their ships at the ebb, as they made great slaughteṛ of them of the castle; who continually fought with them to repulse them, though of the English part also were IO slain a brother of the earl of Oxford's, and some fifty


But the siege still continuing more and more strait, and both the castles, which were the principal strength of the town, being distressed, the one by the duke of Saxony, and 15 the other by the English; and a bridge of boats, which the lord Ravenstein had made between both castles, whereby succours and relief might pass from the one to the other, being on a night set on fire by the English; he despairing to hold the town, yielded, at the last, the castles to the 20 English, and the town to the duke of Saxony, by composition. Which done, the duke of Saxony and Sir Edward Poynings treated with them of Bruges, to submit themselves to Maximilian their lord; which after some time they did, paying, in some good part, the charge of the war, whereby 25 the Almains and foreign succours were dismissed. The example of Bruges other of the revolted towns followed; so that Maximilian grew to be out of danger, but, as his manner was to handle matters, never out of necessity. And Sir Edward Poynings, after he had continued at Sluice some 30 good while till all things were settled, returned unto the King, being then before Boulogne.

Somewhat about this time came letters from Ferdinando and Isabella, King and Queen of Spain; signifying the

final conquest of Granada from the Moors; which action, in itself so worthy, King Ferdinando, whose manner was never to lose any virtue for the shewing, had expressed and displayed in his letters at large, with all the particularities and religious punctos and ceremonies, that were observed 5 in the reception of that city and kingdom: shewing amongst other things, that the King would not by any means in person enter the city, until he had first aloof seen the cross set up upon the greater tower of Granada, whereby it became Christian ground. That likewise, before he would 10 enter, he did homage to God above, pronouncing by an herald from the height of that tower, that he did acknowledge to have recovered that kingdom by the help of God Almighty, and the glorious Virgin, and the virtuous Apostle Saint James, and the holy father Innocent the eighth, 15 together with the aids and services of his prelates, nobles, and commons. That yet he stirred not from his camp, till he had seen a little army of martyrs, to the number of seven hundred and more Christians, that had lived in bonds and servitude, as slaves to the Moors, pass before 20 his eyes, singing a psalm for their redemption; and that he had given tribute unto God, by alms and relief extended to them all, for his admission into the city. These things were in the letters, with many more ceremonies of a kind of holy ostentation.


The King, ever willing to put himself into the consort or quire of all religious actions, and naturally affecting much the King of Spain, as far as one King can affect another, partly for his virtues, and partly for a counterpoise to France; upon the receipt of these letters sent all his 30 nobles and prelates that were about the court, together with the mayor and aldermen of London, in great solemnity to the church of Paul; there to hear a declaration

B. H.


from the lord Chancellor, now cardinal. When they were assembled, the cardinal, standing upon the uppermost step, or half-pace, before the quire, and all the nobles, prelates, and governors of the city at the foot of the stairs, made a 5 speech to them; letting them know, that they were assembled in that consecrated place, to sing unto God a new song. For that, said he, these many years the Christians have not gained new ground or territory upon the Infidels, nor enlarged and set farther the bounds of the Christian 10 world. But this is now done by the prowess and devotion of Ferdinando and Isabella, Kings of Spain; who have, to their immortal honour, recovered the great and rich kingdom of Granada, and the populous and mighty city of the same name, from the Moors, having been in possession thereof by the space of seven hundred years and more: for which, this assembly and all Christians are to render laud and thanks unto God, and to celebrate this noble act of the King of Spain; who in this is not only victorious but apostolical, in the gaining of new provinces 20 to the Christian faith. And the rather, for that this victory


and conquest is obtained without much effusion of blood. Whereby it is to be hoped, that there shall be gained not only new territory, but infinite souls to the church of Christ, whom the Almighty, as it seems, would have live to be 25 converted. Herewithal he did relate some of the most memorable particulars of the war and victory. And after his speech ended, the whole assembly went solemnly in procession, and Te Deum was sung.

Immediately after the solemnity, the King kept his 30 May-day at his palace of Shene, now Richmond. Where, to warm the blood of his nobility and gallants against the war, he kept great triumphs of jousting and tourney, during all that month. In which space it so fell out, that Sir James

Parker, and Hugh Vaughan, one of the King's gentlemen ushers, having had a controversy touching certain arms that the king at arms had given Vaughan, were appointed to run some courses one against another. And by accident of a faulty helmet that Parker had on, he was stricken into the 5 mouth at the first course, so that his tongue was borne unto the hinder part of his head, in such sort, that he died presently upon the place. Which, because of the controversy precedent, and the death that followed, was accounted amongst the vulgar as a combat or trial of right. The King 10 towards the end of this summer, having put his forces, wherewith he meant to invade France, in readiness, but so as they were not yet met or mustered together, sent Urswick, now made his almoner, and Sir John Riseley, to Maximilian, to let him know that he was in arms, ready to 15 pass the seas into France, and did but expect to hear from him, when and where he did appoint to join with him, according to his promise made unto him by Countebalt his ambassador.

The English ambassadors having repaired to Maximilian, 201 did find his power and promise at a very great distance; he being utterly unprovided of men, money, and arms, for any such enterprise. For Maximilian, having neither wing to fly on, for that his patrimony of Austria was not in his hands, his father being then living, and on the other side, 25 his matrimonial territories of Flanders being partly in dowry to his mother-in-law, and partly not serviceable, in respect of the late rebellions; was thereby destitute of means to enter into war. The ambassadors saw this well, but wisely thought fit to advertise the King thereof, rather than to re- 30 turn themselves, till the King's farther pleasure were known; the rather, for that Maximilian himself spake as great as ever he did before, and entertained them with dilatory

answers: so as the formal part of their ambassage might well warrant and require their farther stay. The King hereupon, who doubted as much before, and saw through his business from the beginning, wrote back to the ambassadors, com5 mending their discretion in not returning, and willing them to keep the state wherein they found Maximilian as a secret, till they heard farther from him: and meanwhile went on with his voyage royal for France, suppressing for a time this advertisement touching Maximilian's poverty and dis10 ability.

By this time was drawn together a great and puissant army into the city of London; in which were Thomas marquis Dorset, Thomas earl of Arundel, Thomas earl of Derby, George earl of Shrewsbury, Edmond earl of Suffolk, Edward 15 earl of Devonshire, George earl of Kent, the earl of Essex, Thomas earl of Ormond, with a great number of barons, knights, and principal gentlemen; and amongst them Richard Thomas, much noted for the brave troops he brought out of Wales. The army rising in the whole to the 20 number of five and twenty thousand foot, and sixteen hundred horse; over which the King, constant in his accustomed trust and employment, made Jasper duke of Bedford and John earl of Oxford generals under his own person. The ninth of September, in the eighth year of his reign, he 25 departed from Greenwich towards the sea; all men wondering that he took that season, being so near winter, to begin the war; and some thereupon gathering, it was a sign that the war would not be long. Nevertheless the King gave out the contrary, thus; "That he intending not to make a 30 "summer business of it, but a resolute war, without term "prefixed, until he had recovered France; it skilled not "much when he began it, especially having Calais at his "back, where he might winter, if the season of the war so

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