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clarations are opposed to the view of those christ. Thus, speaking of the sixth seal, who would convert the entire book into a his- he says:tory of the time of the end, and confirms the “ But the prophecy does not come to an view which treats it as our companion through end with this first realization. It continually the whole course of history. Neither do revives anew, whenever a new persecuting those do it justice, who remark with Bengel, world-power steps into the place of the Ro* Therefore did the fulfilment begin imme As another of this kind, Gog and diately after the date of the book.' Not Magog are named in this very book. The orimerely was the beginning in general ascribed ginal passage also, Matt. xxiv. 29, has had to the immediate future, but such a beginning more than one fulfilment:- the first, a proas was to be the beginning of the end. There visional one, which our seer already saw be. is here a touchstone for the exposition of the hind him in the overthrow of Jerusalem; & book, before which that of Bengel and the old more general one in the breaking up of the Protestant one cannot stand. For there, the Roman state; the most extensive one is still main burden of the book refers to relations, of future, and may already be descried in its which no notion could as yet be formed. | beginnings.” p. 274. · The Keeper of Israel neither slumbers nor A little further on, the learned Author sleeps;' 'I am with you always, to the end of seems disposed to apply the figurative lanthe world;'-of these truths, the shortly guage of this vision to the events which were coming to pass,' and the 'I come quickly,' of passing before him. “ With devout wonder this book, are the necessary consequence. we see before our eyes, how the stars of The boundless energy of the Divine nature heaven are falling to the earth, precisely as a admits here of no delay. There is nothing of fig-tree, when violently shaken by the wind, quiescence or indolent repose in God. His casts off its unripe fruit. But,” he adds," the appearing often to linger is merely on account immediate fulfilment was, the overthrow of of our short-sightedness. He is secretly the possession of the old Roman power, the working for salvation and destruction, when bright morning-star that shone in heaven at he seems to us, perhaps, to be standing aloof; the time the Apocalypse was composed.” (p. and only when, by the execution of his judg- 279.) “ Julian's exclamation, 'O Galilean, inent, we are called to enter into his salvation, thou hast conquered !' was a fulfilment of our do we learn consequentially what is meant prophecy.” (p. 282.) Here Dr. Hengstenberg by the 'shortly. At every period when the seems to admit the historical interpretation of book acquires new significance by Satan the sixth seal; and this being granted, ordistirring up new wars against Christ and his nary consistency, one might have thought, church, the shortly' and 'I come quickly' would have led him to adopt a corresponding also spring again into new life. Where the mode of interpretation in reference to the encarcase is, there the eagles are constantly suing visions. But he rejects all“ apocalyptic gathered together; and where the distress is chronology," and for the strangest of all reathe greatest, there the help is also nearest. sons;-because the “ numbers are“ not to God be praised, that we are never pointed to be taken statistically, but theologically.” (p. the far distant future: but that the retributivo 296.) “In what form the wrath of the Lamb justice of God against sin, and his pity and manifested itself in regard to the immediate compassion toward the wretched, tread closely object of the prophecy (of the sixth seal), on each other's heels." pp. 47, 48.
against the all-dominant Roman power of We cannot tell whether the Translator or St. John's time," he proceeds to say, “ will be his Author is responsible for the uncouthness found in ch. xvii., in connexion with the ten of the phraseology in the last sentence. The kings whom he armed against Rome.” (p.282.) entire passage is a singular tissue of piety and The exposition of that chapter is not commysticism, truth and error. It forms, how- | prised in the present volume; but we meet ever, not only a fair specimen of the style, with several indications that the Author but a general key to the exposition. Dr. carries his theory of immediate fulfilment, and Hengstenberg rejects at once the wild theories of synchronous interpretation, to the extreme of the Futurists; he considers the book as of applying the visions of the xiiith and our companion through “the whole course of xviith chapters to the times of the Pagan history,” and admits, therefore, that it is sus empire. Thus, he observes: " The Revelation ceptible of historical interpretation. Yet, supposes that, at the period of its composiinstead of regarding the prophecies as continu-tion, the Antichristian action of the worldous, he appears to imagine that the whole of power was accompanied with the Antithe predictions were primarily fulfilled in the christian operation of the world-wisdom. In "immediale futare," but that they are receiv- | proof of this, see ch. xii. 11.” (p. 25.) ing successive fulfilments under parallel cir- Revelation was composed at a time when cumstances, as Satan stirs up new there was an organized bloody persecution against Christ and his church, and as now which extended over all Christendom. Ch. heathenism, now rationalisin is the Anti- / xiji. 7 is alone sufficient to prove this.” (p. 26.)
“Domitian, above almost every other, was heaven as meaning " a silence like that of a fit representative of the terrible bloody Pharaoh, when he sank with his host into the Beast, full of names of blasphemy, and of the Red Sea." And these groupes are still runhorrible woman drunk with the blood of ning on. saints and of the witnesses of Jesus.” p. 31. " All the numbers in the Apocalypse bave
But if, on the strength of these intimations, only an ideal signification. .. . We have here Dr. Hengstenberg should be claimed by the before us (ch. xi. 2), a representation which favourers of the Preterist theory of interpre- does not bring into view some particular period tation, we must undeceive them. We are of time in the world's history, but the whole not to confine the prediction to its immediate course of it, only that towards the end everyfulfilment. The seven-headed Beast may be thing realizes itself in a more perfect manner. Domitian, and it may at the same time be Wherever the world is found overflowing the Louis Napoleon. Speaking of “the star church,-from that of which John himself fallen from heaven," in the vision of the fifth saw the commencement, to the last (in ch. trumpet, the learned Expositor says: “ The xx. 7-9), of which we have now the beginning star denotes a ruler . . . but the ruler here is before our eyes, -there, the substance of the no single historical person. The ruler is an prophecy always verifies itself anew.” p. 396. ideal person, who appears in history in a Such is the curious system of interpretation whole series of real individuals. The last which has been pronounced to be the only great embodiment of this star was Napoleon. one that approaches to the true scope and But he shall not remain the last.” (p. 352.) sense of Apocalypse! We have taken Ch. xii. 3, 4, is referred to “ Herod, the ser some pains to place it before our readers in as vant of the dragon," seeking the life of the distinct and intelligible a form as possible, in child Jesus. But, says the Espositor," he order to enable them to judge for themselves, lias been manifesting the same wickedness how far it has the advantage, in point of simalso since, throughout the whole history of the plicity, coherence, critical accuracy, and interChristian church, as often as Christ is born nal evidence, over the “historizing" interpretaanew in the Spirit. He is always at hand to tions of our own most judicious commentators. strangle, if he can, the nascent life. What he We must confess, that, in our judgment, his then did through lIerod, is, because history, theory, while seeming to admit the historical also symbol,--a prophecy in action. With fulfilment, deprives us of all evidence of the Bengel and other expositors, to put here one prophetic character of the visions, derivable of those later imitations in the room of the from the events of bistory; while, in teaching great original, is quite arbitrary.” p. 460. us to look for successive fulfilments of tho
The visions of the Apocalypse, Dr. Heng- whole series, even in the events that are stenberg divides into groupes, each groupe passing before us, it opens a wide door for bearing an independent character, standing fanatical speculations. Nothing can be more by itself separate and complete; yet, the dis- arbitrary and fanciful than many of his intertinct groupes run parallel. (p. 327.) We pretations; and, like most expositors of his aro not, however, to seek the fulfilment in school, he mistakes the mystical for the particular events, but to regard each as plac practical. Thus, in reference to the flight of ing before us - an entire species of Divine the emblematic woman in ch. xii., he remarks: judgments." Thus, he remarks of the se "As for the church at large, so, for single cond trumpet: “ The fulfilment of this pro- individuals, the flight into the wilderness is a phesy is to be considered as still in progress." necessary stage.” The piety of the Author's
intentions is conspicuous in the general tone “ The Revelation of St. John gives no and spirit of his observations; and nothing regularly progressive disclosure of the future, would have gratified us more than to find advancing in unbroken series from beginning that quality united, in the present work, with to end; but it falls into a number of groupes, sound judgment and critical acumen. As we which indeed supplement each other, every have intimated, Dr. Hengstenberg started successive vision giving some other aspect of with a foregone conclusion utterly crroneous. the future, but which are still formally com. IIe assumed that the Revelation could be of plete in themselves, each proceeding from a no use for edification or comfort to the early beginning to an end." p. 446.
Christians, unless the whole of tho predictions Had Dr. Hengstenberg simply maintained, were to receive their fulfilment in the immethat a distinct series of visions commences at diate future; and, that Christians in after ch. xii., he would so far have agreed with the times could derive no profit from it, unless best Protestant expositors, although differing the prophecies were to continue to receive widely from them in his interpretation, successive fulfilments to the end of time. Bengel is here clearly wrong. But our Author The “historizing" mode of exposition is begins a new groupe with the seven trumpets, deemed untrue, because " a woe" already long arbitrarily connecting ch. viii. 1 with the since past, has no edification for us; (p. 352;) close of ch. vi., and explaining the silence in / while an historical sulfilment is supposed,
that violates all probability and common | readers, that reasonable expectation will not sense, by bringing the whole within the early be disappointed. Fastidious, indeed, will be ages of Christianity, because what was far those admirers of the character of Mr. Evans off in the future could have no edification for who are not satisfied with this telling record Christians then. This twofold mistake pro- of his life and labours. Seldom, perhaps, ceeds upon a narrow and very defective view has a son succeeded in producing so imparof the design of prophecy, overlooking or tial a memorial of a revered and beloved ignoring entirely its purpose as a branch of parent;—and when it is recollected that the Christian evidence,-evidence dependent upon biographer is a clergyman of the Established its exact fulfilment, and constantly accumu Church, too much credit can scarcely be lating with its progressive development. At given to him for the fair and honest manner the same time, it deprives the history of God's in which, in every instance, he has suffered past dealings with his church of its in his late excellent father to speak for himself, structive character, by encouraging the notion We cannot but commend the principle that we have no concern with events long which Mr. Evans, Jun., laid down for the since past. Moreover, it is contrary to all guidance of his conduct in writing his faanalogy in reference to the prophecies of the ther's Memoirs. He resolved on carefully Old Testament, which may in some cases exhibiting the facts, and leaving them to proadmit of a primary and an ultimate fulfilment, duce their own impression. We are scarcely but never of a series of repeated fulfilments; ever occupied with the personalty or opinions and in which it is always found, that the pre- of the biographer ; but are fixed intensely, dictions relating to the immediate future are throughout the entire volume, upon the ladesigned, by their accomplishment, to afford bours, the correspondence, the character, the an assurance of the certain fulfilment of pro-intercourses, the usefulness, the afflictions of mises extending into the far distant futurity, the deceased. the precise nature of which was, for the most Nor do we object to the form into which part, but dimly apprehended.
these Memoirs have been cast. Although Dr. Hengstenberg himself approves of the something might have been gained, in im. view which regards the Apocalypse as our pression, by interweaving the letters with the companion through the whole course of his-Sketch of Mr. Evans's Life, yet, from the tory; but he would make it our companion to character of the letters themselves, especially little purpose, if all its communications were their great general excellence, they stand so vague, ambiguous, and mystical as his better by themselves than if mixed up with exposition makes them. Strange, that he other materials. should not see, that the only scheme which The order of the volume is as follows:comports with this view of the design of the I. An Introduction, in which the history of Apocalypse, is that which assigns to it a pro the publication is interestingly told, the hingressive and continuous fulfilment running derances which retarded its appearance, and parallel with the course of history, and at the reason for the particular form it assumes. once verified and explained by the events! 11. The “Memoir " itself, in which, in ninetyHaving no better guide to the true historical two pages, we are enabled to trace Mr. interpretation than the devout, but rash and Evans's career, with great vividness of imfanciful Bengel, it is the less surprising that he pression, through his school-boy and college should lose his way. He has performed a use life,—his ministry in the Establislıment,-his ful service in combating and refuting the erro- mighty struggle in turning to God,- his seneous views and flippant criticisms of some of cession from the Episcopal Church, -his pas. his predecessors; especially of Līeke (Moses torate in John-street Chapel,-his temporary Stuart's great authority) and Ewald, of Bleck, adoption of unscriptural views of the Trinity and Baur, and Zūllig; but he does not very and the person of Christ, -his vast range of materially add to our critical appliances for usefulness, pursued to the overtaxing of his expounding “ The Revelation," while, most powers,—his vicissitudes and deep afflictions, assuredly, he fails altogether of tracing the —and the melancholy event which terminright lines of a correct interpretation.
ated his valuable course. Seldom have we
perused a narrative with so much real beneMEMOIR AND REMAINS OF THE Rev. JAMES fit and deep impression of heart. Truly he was
HARINGTON Evans, late Minister of John a inan " full of faith and of the Holy Ghost." street Chapel. Edited by the Rev. JAMES III. We have his own touching Memoir of JOYCE EVANS, M.A., Trin. Coll. Cantab., the first Mrs. Evans, in a series of Letters adChuplain to the Home and Colonial Training dressed to the Church and Congregation asSchools. 8vo. pp. 694.
sembling in John-street. These are most James Nisbet and Co.
rich and profitable letters, which cannot be Higii expectations have been formed, in too generally read. IV. We have his General many circles, in reference to this Memoir; Correspondence, extending from 1811 to 1849, and we are happy to assure our numerous and occupying from page 139 to page 412.
In these Letters there is scarcely a single | their spiritual features as a Divino revelatopic in theology, in Christian experience, or tion." in human life or intercourse, that is not The idea upon which he has constructed touched upon or fully discussed. They are his Essay is that, substantially, of Paley, in the best series of letters on scriptural sub- his Hore Paulinæ; though, instead of resting jects that has seen the light in the present the strength of his argument, as Paley did, age; and could only have been produced by upon “Undesigned Coincidence," he relies one who lived near to the Fountain of all mainly upon another principle, viz., that of goodness and truth. V. We have his Pas “ Reconcileable Variation." With iminense toral Letters, thirty-three in number, ad. stores of information, and no slender share of dressed to the Church in John-street. No Hermeneutical skill and learning, he ad. one can read them without feeling that Mr. dresses himself to his arduous task, meeting Evans laboured as in birth, that Christ might all the difficult questions wbich have sprung be formed in the hearts of bis flock. VI. We up in the path of the Biblical student, doing have his Ministerial Letters, addressed to much to overturn the miserable fabric of Bible Classes, Teachers in Schools, Deacons, Neology, and to establish the faith of those &c., all breathing a seraphic spirit of undis- who have deterinined not to doubt, save on sembled wisdom and godliness. VII. We sufficient evidence. have Original Thoughts on Scripture, extracted One great service rendered to the cause of from his Common-place Book. VIII. We truth in this volume is, that it contains an have Sketches of Sermons. And, IX. We English, and not a German answer to the have the Commencement of a Commentary on works of such men as Strauss. Mr. Birks the Ephesians.
well observes, that “ several of the answers, We have risen up from the careful perusal by foreign writers, are based on lax views of of this volume, we trust, with a stronger the gospels, both in their inspiration and hispurpose of devotion to the work of God. We torical accuracy, which happily does not precommend it to the attention of all our bre vail to the same extent among the Christians thren in the ministry.
in our own land. However alien the myth
ical theory may be from the practical comHORÆ EVANGELICÆ ; or, The Internal Evi mon sense of the British mind, it is never safe
dence of the Gospel History. Being an for poison to circulate, without some antidote Inquiry into the Structure and Origin of the being provided. And since the same line of Four Gospels, their Historical Consistency, inquiry, which most effectually refutes this and the Characteristic Design of each Narra- novel form of unbelief, leads also to conclutive. By the Rev. T. R. Birks, M.A., sions of historical interest, and of practical Rector of Kelshall, Herts, and late Fellow value to the Scripture student, I have thought of Trinity College, Cambridge. 8vo. pp. that the results to which it has led would be 558.
an acceptable offering to the church of Christ Seeleys.
in these last days." We reckon Mr. Birks among the most in. We regret that our limits will not permit defatigable Biblical students of the age ; and, us to do justice to snch a work as this; but though we do not always sympathize with we have a very high estimate of the ability him in his views of the destinies of Messiah's displayed by the author in almost every page. kingdom, yet we consider him to be so emi- | Those who read it with a mind unprejudiced, nently sound in the faith, that we have great cannot fail to benefit by its perusal ; and confidence in commending his works to the we would fain hope that it will reclaim attention of our readers, and especially to the many from the doubts and perplexities they rising ministry of the day.
have imbibed from the German School. The Though he has done good service to the whole subject is distributed into Four Books. church, in his Exposition of Daniel's Pro " The first Book,” observes the author, phecies, and in his Memoir of the Rev. Ed. “will inquire into the mutual relations of the ward Bickersteth, we have no hesitation in Four Gospels, so as to establish their order affirming, that his Horce Evangelicæ is the of succession, and historical connexion, by inost valuable production of his active pen. the external evidence alone. The result thus It is a work of no little originality of plan; obtained will be found to be in entire agreeand is admirably fitted to demolishi all those ment with the current of early tradition. theories of the Gospels, which have any The second Book will investigate the chronosympathy with the monstrous creations of logy of the Book of Acts, the probable date Strauss.
of the Gospels, and the evidence of their The author's design is two-fold, -to fur- authenticity. The third will inquire into the nish “a contribution to the historical evi- contradictions alleged to exist between them, dence of Christianity,” and “ to throw i and will show that these constitute, for the fuller light on the nature of the Four Gos-most part, a deeper evidence of their common pels, the special design of cach narrative, and veracity. The fourth and last, will enter on
a higher field, and briefly treat of the Gospels its properties, trials, privileges, and duration. in their true ideal, as a Divine revelation, IV. The World's Religion, as contrasted with with especial reference to their miraculous genuine Christianity. V. Despair and Hope, character, the alleged fulfilment of Old Testa- exemplified as a narrative founded on fact. ment prophecies, and the great and glorious doctrines of the Incarnation, the Atonement, ENCYCLOPEDIA METROPOLITANA; or, Sysand the Resurrection, of the Son of God.” tem of Universal Knowledge, on a Methodical
We should rejoice to find this volume in Plan, projected by SAMUEL TAYLER COLEEvery Christian family throughout the land.
Second Edition, Rerised. Third In answering sceptics, it will make none; Division : History and Biography, Biblical and this is saying much in favour of such a Antiquities. By F. A. Cox, D.D., LL.D. volume in our day.
With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo., THE WORKS OF LADY COLQUHOUN, OF
John Joseph Grifin and Co.
HAVING recently noticed, with much plea-
sure, Dr. Eadie's volume on Early Oriental WHEN vital godliness finds firm footing History, we hail with equal delight, in conin the higher walks of society, as it did in nection with the same great undertaking, a the powerful and highly-cultivated mind of volume from the pen of our friend Dr. Cox. Lady Colquhoun, it acquires an ascendancy From the great variety of its contents, and often of the most gratifying and peculiar the care which has been bestowed in supplykind. But, in such slippery places, how re- ing the best possible materials, the volume solute must be the struggle of faith to resist cannot fail to be very popular. The subjects, and overcome the blandishments of fashion which are distributed into Thirteen Chapters, able life! To feel and assert the claims of will speak for themselves; and will show how God and conscience, where everything is tem- | valuable the volume will be to the Biblical pered down to a level far below the demands student. I. Nature and Design of the Jewof God's impartial and unchanging word, is ish Economy. II. Consideration of the pro2 proof of the working of that noble spirit bable intentions of Providence with regard to which endures and acts“ as seeing Him who the Limited Scale of the Jewish Economy. is invisible."
III. Of the Ilebrew Language and Literature. In her own private circle, Lady Colqu- IV. Manners and Customs of the Israelites. houn was a striking example of consistent V. The Tabernacle in the Wilderness. VI. piety in aristocratic circles. She feared not The Temple of Solomon, with a View of the to be singular;—she was not asliamed of the Jewish Worship. VII. The Jewish Synacross of Christ; she saw and felt that reli
gogues. VIII. The Sabbath of the Israelites, gion among the great was oftentimes denuded | IX. The Early Possessors of Canaan. X. The of its true glory by the lure of worldly con- Geographical and Topographical Account of formity; and what she thus painfully beheld Canaan. XI. Natural History of Palestine. and deeply deplored, she resolved, by her XII. Modern Judaism. XIII. Sects of the example and by her writings, to endeavour to Jews. Scripture Chronology. Index. counteract.
The Pictorial Illustrations, from the most The Essays contained in this beautiful authentic sources, and executed in the best volume, in the first instance published anony- manner, are one hundred and eighty-six. No mously, are her noble contributions to the expense has been spared on the volume ; and spiritual well-being of those who moved in when our readers learn that it is actually sphere similar to her own. We believe they published at the small sum of eight shillings, were not published in vain. She lived to we are sure that they will promptly avail see that her labours were appreciated, and themselves of so valuable an accession to their that, in some instances, they were greatly libraries. blessed. When their authorship came to be We thank Dr. Cox most sincerely for this known, her own bland manners tended to truly useful and acceptable effort of his pen. give them effect ;-and, while the world stands, they will deserve to be regarded as COMMENTARIES ON THE EPISTLE OF PAUL among the best works in our language to put THE APOSTLE TO THE ROMANS. BY JOHN into the hands of persons moving in the CALVIN. Translated and Edited by the Rer. higher circles.
John Owen, Vicar of Thrussington, Leices. The Essays are five in number, all writ- tershire. 8vo., pp. 592. ten in a purely Evangelical spirit: – I.
Calvin Translation Society. Thoughts on the Religious Profession of the Calvin has such high standing as a ComHigher Classes of Society. II. Impressions mentator on Scripture, that it is almost suof the Heart, relative to the nature and ex- perfluous on the part of any journalist to comcellence of genuine Religion. III. The King- mend him. But we dare not withhold our dom of God; containing a brief account of opinion, whatever it may be worth, that he is