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elementary works are improved, by one
had never been a book printed in any fresh student and another, until they of her numerous languages, except a are completed in such a way as to Bengalee grammar, and one or two please and satisfy all. Many of these other works by the late Dr. Wilkins, literary and important undertakings until the Missionaries of the Baptist have been accomplished gradually by body imparted the invaluable gift. succeeding Missionaries, or by some Illustration on illustration might be jointly, with such accuracy and ele- furnished with regard to other Pagan gance, as to be regarded as among the lands. Every person familiar with most valuable works, of a literary kind, literature, every scientific traveller, of the age, and as being most necessary every individual conversant with the to the acquisition of many dialects and Reports of great Missionary Societies, languages spoken most extensively at can corroborate this, and recur to the present period. We often recur, various islands, or groups of islands, with the deepest interest, to the fact, large districts, important empires, where which cannot be brought too promi. the most useful, the most valuable, the nently forward (for it checks, if it does most necessary knowledge, independently not silence, many gainsayers), that of Christianity, was communicated by enlightened and Christian Missionaries intelligent and able Missionaries, or as have given to the heathen nearly all the the result of their exertions. Now this useful literature which they possess, fruit of Missions, associated with the with few exceptions only; they have directly EVANGELICAL RESULTS, to which, introduced the art of printing into all in our next paper, we shall refer, may the Pagan countries, where its advan- be considered as invaluable. tages are now realized. It has been
T. W. stated, that even in Hindostan there
THE CROSS OF CHRIST THE ONLY CONSERVATIVE PRINCIPLE
OF OUR LITERATURE. [The following beautiful paper is an Nothing else can save our literature. extract from a Lecture delivered by This can. Though alone, it is sufficient. W. R. Williams, D.D., of New York, | The cross of Christ, we say it again, is before the Hamilton Literary and Theo the only conservative principle of our logical Institution. The object of the literature. Nor let any be startled. Lecture, or Address, was twofold; viz., Bacon spoke of Theology as the haven 1st, To lay open the chief causes of all science. It was said by a highlywhich tend to corrupt the Literature of gifted woman, Madame de Staël, who the age;-and 2nd, To show that the cannot be charged as a professional or cross of Christ is the only conservative prejudiced witness in the matter, that principle of our Literature. In the the whole history of the world resolved month of August, we shall show how itself naturally into two great eras, that the eloquent author makes out his case, before Christ's coming, and that which by a reference to the actual evils which has followed his advent. And we find menace our Literature on both sides of John von Müller, a distinguished schothe Atlantic. Those who wish to read | lar and historian of Germany, holding the whole article, which is of surpassing this language as to his favourite science, excellence, will find it in “ The Foreign in which he had made such eminent Evangelical Review," page 1.]
proficiency. Animadverting on a defect
of Herder in his “ Philosophy of His world. It was the re-assertion of this tory," " I find,” said Müller, “every- doctrine which wrought the glorious thing there but Christ, and what is the Reformation. The second, Christ crucihistory of the world without Christ?" fied, as the principle of our sanctifica
And, in fact, the whole history of our tion, under the influences of the renewworld has looked forward or backwarding Spirit, that conforms the believer to to the fatal tree reared on grim Gol- his Lord, and crucifies his evil nature gotha. The oblation there made had within him. Thus it was that Christ the promise and immutable purpose of was not only crucified himself, but reGod with it to insure its efficacy over quired also every disciple to come after the whole range of man's history ante- him, taking up also his own cross; and cedent and subsequent, and along the Paul speaks of himself as crucified unto whole course of the mystery of Divine the world. This last aspect of the docProvidence, as seen in the government | trine of the cross, we have thought, has of the world.
been rather overlooked by some of the Let us, wo entreat you, be under Reformers, in their zeal against selfstood. By the cross of Christ we do righteousness, and against a false and not mean the imaged cross, as borne on ascetic piety. Such was Cecil's opinion, the banners of the Inquisition, with the whom none can suspect of any want of emblems of Judgment and Mercy float- reverent feeling for the Reformers. ing over the scenes of the auto-da-fé, But if we look to the New Testament, where the judgment was without jus- it is very evident that both were blended tice, and the mercy was a mere lie. in the doctrine as the early Christians Nor the cross, as borne on the shoulder received it. The cross was not only of the crusader, whilst, pleading the their confidence, but the model of their name of Christ, he moved through conformity. It is, we have supposed, a scenes of rapine and massacre to lay defect here—a neglect of aiming at this his bloody band on the Holy Sepulchre. high standard of devotedness, on the Nor do we mean the cross, as, carved part of many of us Protestants, that has and gilded, it is seen glittering on the given to the Oxford Tractarian movespires of a cathedral, or hung in jewels ment, and to the present efforts of and gold around the maiden's neck, or Romanism, most of their hold upon the embroidered on the slipper of a pontiff. public mind. Apparent estrangement The cross, as we understand it, has no from the world, and a self-denial that sympathy with a religion of shows and rises superior to the ordinary idols of spectacles, of mummeries and pageants, society, will commend to the respect of of incense and music, and long-drawn mankind even much error in those thus aisles, and painted windows, and gor- estranged and self-denying. It throws geous pictures, and precious statuary. a glistering veil of sanctity even over
But by this title, we mean the cross, the gross corruptions of Romanism ; naked, rugged, and desolate, not pic. and her impostures and enormities are tured, save on the eye of faith, and often overlooked by those who see upon the pages of Scripture -- not standing in her shrines her martyrs of graven, but by the finger of the Spirit charity, her Vincent de Pauls, and her on the regenerate heart; the cross, as Francis Xaviers. A pining recluse, Paul preached it, and the first Chris- scourging himself in sober sadness, as tians received it. This doctrine we the expression of his deep sense of sin, suppose to have two aspects. The first, may be a pitiable spectacle of delusion; Christ crucified, as becoming our free but he is not, in the eyes of the world and full justification by a blood that generally, as odious à sight as that purges from all sin, and avails for the presented by a self-satisfied, self-in
dulgent professor of a purer creed, living august gathering. Legions, whose in all ease and pleasure, conformed to feeblest warrior would have turned to the world in all its follies, and vaunting paleness the cheek of Cæsar at the head of a doctrinal orthodoxy that produces of all his hosts, aro gazing there; yet no eminence in holiness. Cbristians withheld by some dread sentence, they must live more upon the cross, seeing do not interpose. Angels that excel in in it not only the principle of their faith, might and in glory watch that desolate but also the pattern of their obedience Sufferer with adoring interest. That -the cross not only as cancelling their much-outraged Victim, seemingly resin, but also as crucifying their lusts.jected of man and abandoned of God, Such is the twofold aspect of the great is my Maker. In that lowly form is truth, the basis of all Scriptural doc- veiled the incarnate Godhead. The trine and practice, the centre of all its angels that smote Sennacherib's host, mysteries, and all its morality - the and slew the first-born of Egypt, discross of Christ.
peopling a camp and decimating a Let us now, for a moment, turn to nation in a night, have bowed often the history of that cross, in order that their heads to this Being as their Lord we may perceive more clearly its strange and their Creator. Excited as are his elements of power. Place yourselves, enemies, they could frame no consistent then, in imagination, amid the multi- accusation against him to justify their tude, that, swayed by curiosity, or in- enmity. There, under reproach, anflamed by hate, are rushing from the guish, and cursing, dies the only one of hall of judgment, and sweeping along Adam's race that knew no sin. For no their hurried and tumultuous way to guilt of his own is he suffering, but to the hill of crucifixion. Reeling under cancel that of his murderer, man. Thus insults, a meek Sufferer, whose head is viewed, what elements of grandeur and bound with a crown of thorns, and his tenderness, of the loftiest splendour and face swollen with blows and wet with the lowliest condescension, blend in the spittings of the mob, is threading, that dread sacrifice! Do men look slowly and painfully, his way through with interest on greatness in misery? that exasperated crowd, who are all It is here: the King of Glory dying athirst and ravening for his blood. He as a malefactor!
Are they touched has reached the spot selected for his with sympathy for distress? How deep death. There he stands faint, but mute was the anguish even of his patient and uncomplaining, whilst the cruel spirit, when he cried out, invoking a preparations are made that shall con- Father who had hidden his face ! summate the sacrifice. Amid shouts, Should wisdom attract, here was the and taunts, and fiercest blasphemy, he great Teacher whom all Judea had is nailed and lifted up. As the cross admired, speaking as never man spakebecomes erect, and he hangs at last the heavenly Teacher for whom Socrates before that excited multitude, methinks had taught himself and his scholars to I see exultation, like a rising breeze, hope. He is here giving his lessons on ruffle that sea of upturned faces. And the cross. The good man dying ignothere he is raised on high, how utterly miniously, of whom Plato had glimpses, friendless and abject to the eye of man; | is here, the exemplar of perfect innofor even the thieves upbraid him, that cence, enduring the treatment due to hang and writhe beside him.
consummate wickedness. That sacriBut were your eyes unsealed, as the fice stirs all worlds. Hell misses its prophet opened those of his servant at expected prey, and the spell of despair Dothan, you would discern, beside and over the accursed earth is broken, while above that howling rabble, & heaven stoops to behold its King incarnate and dying, that he may recon- | the world left wherewith to allure, quer to his allegiance a revolted pro- wherewith to appal me? I have thrown vince of his empire; in the same act myself loose from the trammels of earth. indulging his mercy, and satisfying his Its cords have perished at the touch of justice, whilst his expiring breath to- an ethereal fire. Disengaged from its gether magnifies his law and enunci- entanglements, its bonds sundered, and ates his gospel. That sacrifice may its snares parted, I soar aloft, to sit, in well have power with man, for it has the language of Paul, in heavenly places power with God.
To the human mind in Christ Jesus. I rise yet higher, and it presents, in the closest union and in in the awful language of Peter, I, the their highest energy, all the elements heir of corruption, and once the bondsof sympathy, awe, and tenderness. It man of death, am made “a partaker of blends a Divine majesty that might the Divine nature.” Here is power. well overawe the haughtiest, with a Let that power of the cross but go winning gentleness that would reassure forth in its appropriate channels, in a the most desponding. It may well be, holy devoted ministry—in the more at the same time, a theme for the mind elevated piety of the church, and in a of an angel to study, without grasping Christian education of the young given all its vastness; and a motive for the by the church, if the state may not give mind of the Sabbath-school child to it;—let that power, we say, but go forth feel, without being repelled by its lofti- in these channels, and, with God's blessness. It has power--practical power-ing upon it, the world is saved. Carry popular power-permanent power. It that truth into all the scenes of human is God's remedy for sin; and with the activity or suffering; into the marketaccompanying influences of his Spirit, place, and the halls of legislation ; into it can avail as the remedy for all forms the schools of philosophy, and the stuof man's sin, as that sin is infused into, dent's cell, and the editor's desk, the and as it is found envenoming either cabins of poverty and the dungeons of the literature of the world, or any other crime ; let it fence the cradle and watch product of the human mind. Let us the deathbed ; and it will be found but transcribe that truth into the heart, equal to every task, competent to every and illustrate it in the life; or rather, let emergency, and mighty to exorcise the renewing grace of God's Spirit so every evil spirit. The earthly miracles transfer it into the soul of man,-let of our Lord were in some sense but me be enabled to believe in this Divine anticipations and earnests of the moral Sufferer as my Saviour-to feel that miracles which that doctrine of the with him I am dying to the world, and cross has wrought, and is now workthat with him, too, I shall rise again ing, and will continue to work. Yetfrom the grave, see him on the judg- yet, does this Saviour open the blinded ment throne, and follow him into the eyes of passion, and breathe strength gates of Paradise; and with these truths wherewith to obey him into the palsied firmly grasped by the mind, what has will of the sinner.
THE NATURE AND PREROGATIVES OF THE CHURCH; OR, THE
BIBLE AND CATHOLICISM CONTRASTED. It is obvious that the question con- the externals of religion. It concerns cerning the nature and prerogatives of the very nature of Christianity and the the Church, is not one which relates to conditions of salvation. If the soul
convinced of sin and desirous of recon- many devout and exemplary men, its ciliation with God, is allowed to hear legitimate fruits are recklessness and the Saviour's voice, and permitted to go profligacy, combined with superstition to him by faith for pardon and the and bigotry. It is impossible, also, Spirit, then the way of life is unob- under this system, to avoid transferring structed. But if a buman priest must the subjection of the understanding intervene, and bar our access to Christ, and conscience due to God and his word, assuming the exclusive power to dis- to the church and the priesthood. The pense the blessings Christ has pur- judgments of the church, considered as chased, and to grant or withhold them an external visible society, are proat discretion, then the whole plan of nounced, even by the Protestant advosalvation is effectually changed. No cates of this theory, to be unerring and sprinkling priest, no sacrificial or sacra- irrefragable, to which every believer mental rite, can be substituted for the must bow on pain of perdition. (See immediate access of the soul to Christ, Palmer, vol. ii. p. 46.) The bishops are without imminent peril of salvation. declared to stand in Christ's place; to
It is not, however, merely the first be clothed with all the authority which approach to God, or the commencement he as a man possessed; to be invested of a religious life, that is perverted by with the power to communicate the the ritual system; all the inward per- Holy Ghost, to forgive sins, to make the manent exercises of religion must be body and blood of Christ, and to offer modified and injured by it. It pro- sacrifices available for the living and duces a different kind of religion from the dead. Such a system must exalt that which we find portrayed in the the priesthood in the place of God. Bible, and exemplified in the lives of A theory, however, which has so long the apostles and early Christians. There prevailed, need not be judged by its everything is spiritual. God and Christ apparent tendencies. Let it be judged are the immediate objects of reverence by its fruits. It has always and everyand love; communion with the Father where, just in proportion to its prevaof Spirits, through Jesus Christ his Son, lence, produced the effects above reand by the Holy Ghost, is the life which ferred to. It has changed the plan of is there exhibited. In the ritual sys. salvation. It has rendered obsolete the tem, rites, ceremonies, altars, buildings, answer given by Paul to the question, priests, saints, the blessed virgin, inter- What must I do to be saved? It has vene and divide or absorb the reverence perverted religion. It has introduced and homage due to God alone. If ex- idolatry. It has rendered men secure ternal rites and creature-agents are made in the habitual commission of crime. necessary to our access to God, then those It has subjected the faith, the conrites and agents will more or less take science, and the conduct of the people the place of God, and men will come to to the dictation of the priesthood. It worship the creature rather than the has exalted the hierarchy, saints, angels, Creator. This tendency constantly and the Virgin Mary, into the place of gathers strength, until actual idolatry is God, so as to give a polytheistic chathe consequence, or until all religion is racter to the religion of a large part of made to consist in the performance of Christendom. Such are the actual fruits external services. Hence this system of that system which has of late reis not only destructive of true religion, newed its strength, and which everybut leads to security in the indulgence where asserts it claims to be received of sin and commission of crimes. as genuine Christianity.--The Foreign Though it includes among its advocates Evangelical Review, pp. 168, 169.