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bright a luminary shone in the city of Cal- Tovards the close of his useful and honour. vin.” To these interesting and deeply-in-able lifo he said, on one occasion, to ncar terested auditors, Mr. Haldane expounded the relative :-" It is the preaching of sound Greek Testament, going regularly through doctrine which the Lord blesses, and not the Epistle to the Romans. With this cluci- | particular systems.

We were perdation of the word of God, he connected a

mitted for a time to attach too much imconstant attention to practical godliness, and portance to some things connected with to the indispensable necessity of personal church order; and whether it was that we religion. Incalculable was the good result- were not worthy, or whatever was the cause, ing from the blessing of God on these instruc- our efforts to restore apostolic churches and tions. Among the many who received sub- primitive Christianity were unsuccessful.” stantial benefit, and who became successful Although, at his advanced age, his mind ministers of Christ, were Merle D'Aubigné, retained its vigour and elasticity, his bodily F. Monod, C. Rieu, Gonthier, and H. Pyt. frame gradually became feebler, till he felt

The critical study of the Epistle to the that the hand of Death was upon him. He Romans prepared Mr. Haldane for resuming told his relative (now his biographer), “ that the study of that book subsequently, with all the event he had long expected was now at the aids and appliances he could obtain. hand, and that in a few hours he would "On this,” says bis biographer, “ he was en probably be summoned before the tribunal gaged, more or less, for nearly thirty years." of God, the Judge of all. He said that he It was labour well bestowed. It was pub- viewed the approach of the last enemy lished, at length, in three srnall volumes, and without dismay; that he died in the faith, it is well worthy of a place in every Christian possessing the peace of God, and in the full library, and especially in the library of every assurance of understanding."

He added, Christian minister. On the great doctrine of

• You cannot conceive the comfort I possess. justification by faith, as set forth by the "I have fought a good fight, I have finished Apostle, in all its aspects and in all its bear- | my course, I have kept the faith ; and ings, we have nothing superior to Mr. Hal- henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of dane's elucidations and reasonings. It was righteousness;" laying great emphasis on much read and highly valued by the late Dr. the words—“not for me only, but for all who Chalmers, who expressed himself greatly in- love his appearing." He added, that he redebted to it. It is not necessary that we posed securely on the atonement of the should coincide with every opinion expressed Saviour; and that the words 'It is finished," by the expositor, when we thus recommend gave him solid peace and comfort. The last bis commentary; but, on the most important words he was beard to utter were:—For points, we think him one of the safest guides ever with the Lord; for ever,- for ever.' to inquiring minds. His work on the “ Evi- Mr. James Haldane survived his elder dences of Christianity” is also distinguished brother more than eight years, and they were by great power and conclusiveness. It was years of peace and of usefulness. It is dehighly appreciated and strongly recommended lightful to read such a passage as the followby Dr. Pye Smith.

ing from the pen of his son :-.“ This chapter From Geneva Mr. Haldane went to Mont- (the twenty-sixth) has conducted us over six auban. In the Protestant College at that years of the life of the surviving brother place he found sixty-four students. He It exhibits him bringing forth fruit in old availed himself of every opportunity of inter- age, and, up to the age of fourscore, labourcourse with them; and many of them, he liad | ing with undiminished zeal for the glory of encouragement to believe, were brought to God and the salvation of sinners." In a the knowledge and love of the Saviour. He letter to his son, written within six weeks of conversed also freely and fully with many his departure, he says :-“This is the last pastors from various parts of France, who day of the year, and the last letter I shall visited Montauban, and thus greatly extended write this year. My life has been wonderbis usefulness. During the two years of his fully preserved,-much beyond the usual residence there, he published, in the French course of nature.

"Goodness and mercy language, his " Exposition of the Epistle to have followed me all the days of my life;' the Romans," and also the “Evidences of and, without the shadow of boasting, I can Christianity.

add, 'I shall dwell in the house of the Lord His unwearied efforts to do good, especially for ever.” He continued in the possession by the revision and re-publication of soine of of every faculty, even to the last day of his bis writings, continued till his seventy-ninth life. About an hour before his departure, year. He had for many years divided his lis devoted wife said, “You are going to time between a residence in Edinburgh during Jesus; how bappy you will be soon !" A the winter, and a residence at Auchingray in vivid smile lighted up his countenance, with the summer, on an estate which he had pur- the expression of incffable joy, as he emchased between Edinburgh and Glasgow. phatically said, “Oh, yes !” In the presence

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of his family he drew the last soft breath, devoted to the narration of facts and prinand his ransomed spirit entered into the joy ciples connected with the disruption of the of his Lord. The extraordinary honour Scottish Establishment, and the Exodus of paid to his character at his funeral proclaimed, the noble band of men, who, with Dr. Chalthroughout Edinburgh, the estimation in mers at their head, formed the nucleus of the which he was most deservedly held.

Free Church,-it is so admirably managed We concur in the persuasion expressed by in its details, that, Nonconformists as we are, tho able writer of the Memoirs, that "the we have been exceedingly edified by the pecharacter of the two brothers will be found rusal of the entire record. It has been drawn stamped on their acts; and that whether we up with equal regard to truthfulness and regard the labours of the elder brother for charity; and exhibits many a lesson which the revival of Christianity on the continent Evangelical Dissenters might do well to of Europe, or the labours of both in their ponder with deep thoughtfulness, and to native land, it has been said with truth, that carry out consistently with their conscienthey have left the impress of their name on tious convictions in reference to the nature the age in which they lived."

and form of the Redeemer's kingdom. In concluding our review of this admirable The many gleams, in this volume, of and edifying biography of these two eminent | Dr. Chalmers's private life are delightful and servants of Christ, we cannot refrain from refreshing in the extreme; affording striking expressing our sense of the obligation under evidence of a most genial spirit, regulated which the Christian public are laid to Mr. and sanctified by a superabundant measure Alexander Ilaldane, for the talent, the cor- of the grace of God. His genius indicated rectness, the candour, and, above all, for the itself in the whole course of his public and adherence to the great principles of our private life;- but it was genius nobly conmost holy faith, by which the entire volume secrated on the altar of the cross. His sin. is distinguished. We most cordially recom- gleness of heart, more, perhaps, than his mend it to our readers, and we anticipate masculine power, drew towards him the conwith confidence that wide circulation which fidence of his brethren, and made them fearit so well merits.

less in following where he led the way. Few men have occupied such a com


sphere, without ever having been so much as MEMOIR OF THE LIFE AMD WRITINGS OF THOMAS CHALMERS, D.D., LL.D.; by his of a public career, transparent in the highest

suspected of self-seeking. But, in the midst Son-in-Law, the Rev. William HANNA, degree, it is most touching to find, in his LL.D), Vol. IV. 8vo. pp. 682.

private memoranda, how he taxes his moConstable and Co., Edinburgh; and tives, and charges himself with imperfections, Hamilton, Adams, and Co., London.

in the sight of God, which were never deIt is with no common-place feeling of cold | tected by the eye of man. His close walk criticism that we introduce to our numerous with God, in the midst of a round of popular readers the fourth and last volume of Dr. excitement unknown, in an equal degree, to Chalmers' Memoirs. Every fresh glance we any man of his times, is, after all, the most take of his lovely and brilliant character marked, and the most delightful feature, in but endears him more and more to our hearts. his memorable life. Never was intellectual greatness more har- There are some correspondences and some moniously blended with high moral and social Diaries in this volume of surpassing interest. excellence, than in the intensely interesting They cannot be read without emotion, and career of Thomas Chalmers. Such majesty, without benefit. And towards the evening coinbined with child-like simplicity, inade of his days, when his sun was nearer the sethim an object of equal reverence and love. ting hour than most of his observant friends Dr. Hanna has now completed his arduous had suspected, there seemed to come over his task; and never, perhaps, did a biographer spirit a glow of Christian love, which pot more retire into the shade, in order to render only united him in feeling to the whole houseprominent the subject of his truthful and hold of faith, but which made him almost touching delineations. We have heard com- agonize for some scheme of comprehension plaints of the extent to which these memoirs and union among all the disciples of Christ. have grown;—but we suspect that those who If any one who shall read these Memoirs indulge them have not made a thorough does not rise up from their perusal a wiser study of the materials which Dr. Hanna has man, and a better Christian, it will be his supplied, nor of the discreet and effective own fault. manner in which he has made use of them. To Dr. Hanna we tender our most grateful Very little, indeed, has been introduced into thanks for the successful effort he has put the four volumes now in our hands, the use- forth to do justice to the memory of one, ful tendency of which can fairly be called in whom no other living man could have so well question. Though the last volume is largely appreciated as himself,

Ward and Co.

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THE NOTIONS OF THE CHINESE CONCERNING | have a word in their language answering to

GOD AND SPIRITS; with an Examination of our word God, to the Hebrew Elohim, and to the Defence of an Essay on the Proper the Greek Theos;" and to the illustration and Rendering of the words Elohim and Theos enforcement of this important and profoundly into the Chinese Language, by William interesting point he devotes his first chapter. J. Boone, D.D., Missionary Bishop of the And we are satisfied that every man, of compeProtestant Episcopal Church of the United tent capacity and patience, who will peruse that States to China. By the Rev. JAMES LEGGE, admirable combination of historical inquiry and D.D., of the London Missionary Society. 8vo. critical philosophy, will not only admit that

Dr. Legge has made good his ground, but that We some time ago introduced to the notice he has thrown light on some of the most interof our readers two pamphlets, on the properesting problems connected with the moral narendering of the term God into the Chinese ture and future destiny of mankind. By a language, by Dr. Legge.* Now we have to process of inductive reasoning, sufficient to invite their attention to an amplification and satisfy the most scrupulous and keen-eyed fresh enforcement of his opinions on that im- disciple of Bacon, he shows that the history, portant question. Dr. Legge, deeming the the philosophy, the religious opinions, and the right rendering of the Divine name into a grandest forms of their national religion, attest language spoken by the most numerous and, that the Chinese have deep-seated convicin many respects, the most remarkable nation tions of the being, the claims, and the maof the earth, a matter of the highest import- jesty of God; and that their language is ance, has devoted himself to a thorough and enriched with a term or symbol peculiarly profound investigation of the literature and fitted to be employed as the rendering or religious opinions of the Chinese, in order to translation of the Divine name. Dr. Legge its final settlement. And the fruit of his pro- does not do the thing by halves, but enters longed and laborious inquiries, conducted in a into the matter thoroughly, not only as spirit of candour and true scholarship, is the labour of love,” but as a work intimately present volume, which, we cannot help feel connected with the progress or defeat of ing, is abundantly sufficient to harmonize all Christianity among the millions of China. differences, and secure the suffrages of the From a deep and invincible sense of duty, entire Mission brotherhood. We should hope, combined with a painful conviction of the indeed, that Dr. Boone himself, in spite of the melancholy consequences that must flow from prejudices and prepossessions which must conflicting opinions on this question, he has have gathered around him, will admit the gone through a prodigious amount of labour force of Dr. Legge's argument, and adopt the in order to arrive at sound views; he has exrendering of the Divine name which he has hausted the whole subject, and has literally recommended. At all events, it must be ad-overwhelmed his antagonist with the weight mitted by every dispassionate reader who is and conclusiveness of his arguments. He competent to weigh and appreciate evidence, shows, moreover, by a graceful and indulgent that the argument against Dr. Boone is of implication, rather than by direct and humilithe most triumphant description. His positions ating exposure, that the Chinese scholarship have been taken seriatim, and subjected to of Dr. Boone is anything but profound; that a calın but searching investigation, conducted the authorities by which he attempts to fortify on the soundest principles of criticism and himself are blind guides, or that their doctrines historical inquiry, and have melted like are grievously misapprehended by him; and shadows beneath a flood of light. For that his competency for philological investi-, onrselves, we can freely say, that we do gation is vitiated either by original infirmity, not remember, in the whole course of our or superinduced prejudice. It will be seen, reading, to have met with a more beautiful indeed, by the reader of this masterly chapter, sample of conclusive and triumphant reason

that Dr. Boone refused to adopt the simplest ing, conducted in a spirit of Christian gentle- and most legitimate way of arriving at a perness, unruffled by a single expression of ception of the fitness of the term suggested by asperity or angry recrimination. "Dr. Boone Dr. Legge, as the rendering of the Divine name may well fear Dr. Legge as a scholar and dia- —that he contents himself with the most scanty lectician; but he cannot help admiring and research--that he falls back, contrary to his loving him as a gentleman and a Christian. formally avowed principles, on the Atheistic

Dr. Boone's first proposition is,—“ The School of Chinese Philosophythat he makes Chinese do not know any being who may averments contrary to the most obvious truly and properly be called God; they have, lessons of history—and declines accepting therefore, no name for such a being; no word evidence furnished by the convictions of the in their language answering to our word God." | people, and the opinions of the learned. Dr. Legge emphatically replies: “I maintain Without adverting to Dr. Legge's expothat the Chinese do know the true God, and sure of the Atheistical School of Chinese Phi* See Number for January, 1851.

losophy, which is identical with the shallow

and absurd notions of those in our own land | meet Thee, and reverently look up for thy who resolve the personality of the Divine coming, 0 Te. Oh that Thou wouldest Being into an abstraction, or what in the vouchsafe to accept our offerings, and regard cant of atheism is designated a law,-- and us, while thus we worship Thee, whose goodwithout dwelling on his historical notices of ness is inexhaustible!' the religious creed of China, the strength and “ In this prayer,” Dr. Legge, with great prosoundness of his position, when he affirms priety and force, observes, “ we find the Empe" that the Chinese do know the true God, and ror of China, -in his own opinion, and that of have a word in their language answering to many millions subject to him, the greatest of our word God,” will be distinctly shown by men,-prostrate in the dust before Shang-Te, adducing some of the prayers and hymns acknowledging that from Him he holds as a which form part of the Imperial ritual, and by solemn trust the vast government which he referring to the common notions of the great wields, and that he is Ilis servant, though body of the people.

consciously unworthy of His favours. Sub“ The first,” says Dr. Legge, "of the stitute for Shang-Te the name of God, and grcat sacrifices, in the Ming and every other all that is predicated of Ilim on the one hand dynasty, is always the Border sacrifice or is true, and all that the Emperor says of himsacrifices. I speak of it either as singular or self on the other is highly praiseworthy. plural. For the most part, it may be con- There is a special point, however, in the sidered as embracing the sacrifices at the two prayer, to which I wish to call attention, solstices that in winter, addressed more par- the distinction made between Shang-Te, and ticularly to the presiding Power, as ruling in all the Shin, or, as I translate the word, spirits. heaven; and that in summer, to the same They are His guards, or attendants. Just as Power, as causing the earth to bring forth and Jehovah came from Paran with holy myriads bud. Sometimes, however, the Border sacri- (Deut. xxxii. 2),— as He revealed himself fices have been multiplied to four, and even on Sinai among thousands of angels (Psa. six; at other times they have been collected lxviii. 17);-so do the Chinese believe, that into one. It will not be denied that, when when Shang-Te descends to receive their worthey are divided into two or more, the great- ship offered by the Emperor, He comes atest is that at the winter solstice, offered to tended by ten thousand spirits. He is not Shang-Te, on a round altar, in the southern one of them, though He is a 'spirit.'” suburb of the capital city. We have only to Dr. Legge, having shown that the change attend to the prayers and praises offered on of style in the form of address, to which ho that occasion, to know what the Chinese think had adverted, cannot be called an innovation of this Being.

-being simply an alteration from “ Shang-Te “ The following was the form of prayer dwelling in the bright heavens,” to “Shang-Te with which the approach of the spirit of dwelling in the sovereign heavens,” — and Shang-Te to the sacrifice was greeted, until having stated that the “first description the 17th year of Kea-tsing, when a change which we have of worship in China—that by was made, to which I will shortly call atten- Shun-mentions Shang-Te without any adtion:-“To Thee, O mysteriously-working junct," adds: “On occasion of making the Maker, I look up in thought. How imperial alteration, the ceremonies of a regular solstiis the expansive arch where Thou dwellest! tial sacrifice were performed, and hymns of Now is the time when the masculine energies prayer and praise were sung, in which devoof nature begin to be displayed, and with the tion rose to a very high clevation." A paper great ceremonies I reverently honour Thec. also was read, in presence of the Emperor Thy servant, I am but a recd or willow; my and many of his officers, six days before this heart is but as that of an ant ; yet have I celebration, which, after enumerating a long received Thy favouring decree, appointing train of spirits, thus concludes:-"On the me to the government of the empire. I first day of the coming month, We shall deeply cherish a sense of my ignorance and reverently lead our officers and people to blindness, and am afraid lest I prove unwor- honour the great name of Shang-Te, dwelling thy of Thy great favours. Therefore will I in the sovereign heavens, looking up to that observe all the rules and statutes, striving, nine-storied lofty azure vault. Beforehand insignificant as I am, to discharge my loyal we inform you, all ye celestial and all ye duty. Far distant here, I look up to Thy terrestrial spirits, and will trouble you on our heavenly palace. Come in Thy precious behalf to exert your spiritual influences and chariot to the altar. Thy servant, I bow my display your vigorous eflicacy, communicating head to the earth, reverently expecting Thine our poor desire to Shang-Te, and praying Him abundant grace.

All my officers are here mercifully to grant us His acceptance and arranged along with me, joyfully worshipping regard, and to be pleased with the title which before Thee. All the spirits accompany Thee we shall reverently present.” · It will be as guards, filling the air froin the east to the observed,” remarks Dr. Leggc, how, in the west. Thy servant, I prostrate myself to preceding paper, the Emperor speaks to the

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Shin, just as he does to his subjects. In all small are sheltered by Thy love. As enhis addresses to Shang-Te, he speaks of him- graven on the heart of Thy poor servant is self as Shin, 'servant or subject;' but he the sense of Thy goodness, so that my feeling addresses the Shin with the authoritative cannot be fully displayed. With great kindChin, corresponding to our English We. He ness Thou dost bear with us, and, notwithis indeed their Lord; only to Shang-Te does standing our demerits, dost grant us life and he acknowledge inferiority and subjection. prosperity.”—“Let," Dr. Legge justly adds, But the document ought to put the question “the descriptions which are contained in concerning the distinction between Shang-Te these sacred songs be considered without preand Shin at rest. We see from it that the judice, and I am not apprehensive as to the Emperor worships one God, and many other answer which will be returned to the quesspiritual beings, who are under Him and in- tion, 'Who is He whom the Chinese thus ferior to Him. Language could not be moro worship ?' We read in Jeremiah, “The gods positive and precise. Shang-Te stands out that have not made the heavens and the before the worshipper single and alone. A earth shall perish from the earth, and from certain change is made in the ordinary style under those heavens ;' but Shang-Te cannot of addressing Him. Wherewith shall the be among them. Ile made the heavens and Emperor come before Him with the altera- the earth, and man. He is the true Parent of tion? He prepares for his approach by all things. llis love is over all his works. calling in the mediation of the Shin, -not of He is the great and lofty One, whose dominion one, nor of a few, but of all the spirits of is everlasting. Ilis years are without end. heaven, and all the spirits of earth. Shall Ilis goodness is infinite. Spirits and men we be told, in the face of this, that Shang-Te are alike under his government. They reis merely one of the Shin? As broad a line joice in Him, and praise His great name, of demarcation is drawn between Him and though they cannot reach to its comprehenShin and men, as the Scriptures draw between sion, for it is inexhaustible, unmeasurable. God and other beings, pronouncing Him & This is wbat China holds, and, in her highest spirit, and yet exalting Him high over all,- exercises of devotion, declares concerning whether spirits or men."

Shang-Te. I am confident the Christian Of the hymns or “songs employed in the world will agree with me in saying, “This service to which the foregoing notification was God is our God.'introductory," our space will admit of only But it is not merely in the ritual of the two or three specimens.—“ Song 1st. Of State religion of China that Shang-Te is recogold in the beginning, there was the great nised and worshipped as the Supreme Ruler, chaos, without form, and dark. The five and is distinguished from the Shin. The suelements had not begun to revolve, nor the premacy of Shang-Te, and his distinction sun and the moon to shine. In the midst from the Shin, as subordinate and dependent, thereof there existed neither form nor sound. are elements in the creed of the multitude. Thou, O Spiritual Sovereign ! camest forth “I can state it," Dr. Legge observes, “ as the in Thy presidency, and first didst divide the result of my own experience, in conversing grosser parts from the purer. Thou madest and reasoning with the Chinese, that they do heaven; Thou madest earth; Thou madest not confound Shang-Te with the Shin. I

All things, with their reproducing might fill twenty pages with accounts of conpower, got their being.–Song 3rd. Thou hast versations with individuals, of different grades, vouchsafed, 0 Te, to hear us, for Thou regard- upon the subject. They have always to me est us as á Father, I, Thy child, dull and recognised the Shin as a class different from unenlightened, am unable to show forth my Shang-Te, and under Him.

As often as I dutiful feelings. I thank Thee that Thou hast have put the question, Which is greater, accepted the intimation. Honourable is Thy Shang-Te, or the Shin?' the reply has been, great name. With reverence we spread out 'Shang-Te is the greater,' and often with the these gems and silks, and, as swallows re- addition, 'How can they be compared? The joicing in the spring, praise Thine abundant Shin are the servants of Shang-Te.' This is love.—Song 7th. All the numerous tribes of the belief of all classes, from the Emperor animated beings are indebted to Thy favour downwards.” In corroboration of his own exfor their beginning. Men and things are all perience, Dr. Legge adduces the testimony of emparadised in Thy love, O Te! All living two parties—that of the Governor of Fuh-Keen things are indebted to Thy goodness; but province, who, in his interview with the Bishop who knows from whom his blessings come to of Victoria, “ clearly and unequivocally mainhim? It is Thou alone, O Lord, who arttained,” among other things, that “Shang-Te the true Parent of all things.--Song 9th. conveys to the Chinese mind the idea, not of The service of song is completed, but our an idol, or one of their Shin-Ming, Lut of one poor sincerity cannot be expressed. Thy Universal Ruler of the world;" and that of a sovereign goodness is infinite. As a potter Chinaman, who had resided fifteen years in hast thou made all living things. Great and | America, a man of good sense and judgment,

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